AP Biology Review Chapters 6-8 Review Questions Chapter 6

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AP Biology Review                                                      Chapters 6-8 Review Questions

Chapter 6: Metabolism: Energy and Enzymes
  1. Understand and know the first and second laws of thermodynamics. What is entropy? What happens
      when entropy increases?
  2. What are the biochemical reactions in organisms collectively known as?
  3. Know endergonic and exergonic reactions in terms of G and energy of products and reactants. Which
      type of reaction is spontaneous?
  4. Why are some reactions coupled?
  5. What is the chemical structure of ATP?
  6. Where is the energy stored in ATP and how is it released?
  7. Know enzymes. Are enzymes used up in a reaction? How do enzymes work? How are enzymes affected
      by temperature, pH, alcohol, and distilled water?
  8. What is the energy of activation? How do enzymes affect the energy of activation?
  9. What is the currently accepted model of enzymes and substrates?
  10. What is lactose intolerance? How can a person with lactose intolerance avoid the side effects of it?

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis
  1. Know the structure and function of the organelles involved in photosynthesis. Understand the Z-scheme
      and Calvin cycle diagrams to be able to explain the process of photosynthesis in detail.
  2. In what organelles are ATP synthase complexes found? What is the purpose of ATP synthase
      complexes?
  3. How do some poisons function?
  4. Know the chemiosmotic theory. How is an H+ gradient established across the membrane?
  5. What happens to a molecule when it has been oxidized? Reduced? (LEO GER....OIL RIG....)
  6. What organisms are capable of photosynthesis? (Think of ALL of them!)
  7. Where does the electron transport chain occur in prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic organisms?
  8. What are units of energy of light called? Be familiar with absorption and action spectra. Understand
      what color light is reflected and absorbed by photosynthetic organisms.
  9. What is negative feedback? Be able to recognize or give an example of negative feedback.
  10. What happens when the stomata of a leaf closes? What is a possible negative side effect of stomata
      being closed? Know the differences and similarities in C3, C4, and CAM plants?

Chapter 8: Cellular Respiration
  1. Know the three/four reactions (location and steps) of cellular respiration.
  2. Know how many ATPs, NADHs, and FADHs are used or produced in each step of cellular respiration
      (both aerobic and anaerobic). Make a chart if it will help you organize the information.
  3. When and how many CO2 are produced? (HINT: it occurs in two of the four parts of cellular respiration)
  4. What molecule is the primary energy carrier between the Krebs cycle and the ETS?
  5. What molecule is the final electron acceptor in the ETS? What is made when it accepts electrons?
  6. What does the flow of electrons in the ETS directly and indirectly accomplish?
  7. Understand the differences between chemiosmosis , ETS, ATP synthase complex, oxidative
      phosphorylation and substrate-level phosphorylation.
  8. Know and understand the process of anaerobic respiration and why it occurs. What two types of
      fermentation can occur? In which organisms do these processes take place?
  9. What percentage of energy in glucose is captured as ATP during aerobic respiration? Fermentation?
  10. What must happen to fats or proteins before they can enter cellular respiration pathways? How many of
      the 20 amino acids can humans NOT produce? What are they called and why?
                                                                                        Past AP Exam Essay Questions
1999 Question 1
The rate of photosynthesis may vary with changes that occur in environmental temperature, wavelength of light, and light
intensity. Using a photosynthetic organism of your choice, choose only ONE of the three variables (temperature,
wavelength of light, or light intensity) and for this variable
    a) Design a scientific experiment to determine the effect of the variable on the rate of photosynthesis for the
         organism
    b) Explain how you would measure the rate of photosynthesis in your experiment
    c) Describe the results you would expect. Explain why you would expect these results.
2000 Question 1
The effects of pH and temperature were studied for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The following results were obtained.
   a) How do (1) temperature and (2) pH affect the activity of this enzyme? In your answer, include a discussion of the
        relationship between the structure and the function of this enzyme, as well as a discussion of how structure and
        function of enzymes are affected by temperature and pH.
   b) Describe a controlled experiment that could have produced the data shown for either temperature or pH. Be sure
        to state the hypothesis that was tested.

2004 Question 3
A controlled experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of darkness and boiling on the photosynthetic rate of
incubated chloroplast suspensions. The dye reduction technique was used. Each chloroplast suspension was mixed with
DPIP, an electron acceptor that changes from blue to clear when it is reduced. Each sample was placed individually in a
spectrophotometer and the percent transmittance was recorded. The three samples used were prepared as follows.
     Sample 1: chloroplast suspension + DPIP
     Sample 2: chloroplast suspension surrounded by foil wrap to provide a dark environment + DPIP
     Sample 3: chloroplast suspension that has been boiled + DPIP
     Time            Light, Unboiled                     Dark, Unboiled                       Light, Boiled
     (min)    % Transmittance/ Sample 1          % Transmittance/ Sample 2            % Transmittance/ Sample 3
       0                   28.8                                29.2                                28.8
       5                   48.7                                30.1                                29.2
      10                   57.8                                31.2                                29.4
      15                   62.5                                32.4                                28.7
      20                   66.7                                31.8                                28.5
    a) On the axes provided, construct and label a graph showing the results for the three samples.
    b) Identify and explain the control or controls for this experiment.
    c) The differences in the curves of the graphed data indicate that there were differences in the number of electrons
        produced in the three samples during the experiment. Discuss how electrons are generated in photosynthesis and
        why the three samples gave different transmittance results.

2005 Question 1
Yeast cells are placed in an apparatus with a solution of sugar (a major nutrient for yeast metabolism). The apparatus
detects bubbles of gas released by yeast cells. The rate of respiration varies with the surrounding temperatures as indicated
by data below.
              Temperature (Co)                                 0     10    20     30     40    50     60   70
              # of bubbles of gas produced per min             0     3     7      12     7     4      1    0
    a) Graph the results on the axes provided. Determine the optimum temperature for respiration in the yeast.
    b) Respiration is a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Using your knowledge of enzymes and the data above,
        analyze and explain the results of this experiment.
    c) Design an experiment to test the effect of varying the pH of the sugar solution on the rate of respiration. Include a
        prediction of the expected results.
2009 Question 2
ATP and GTP are primary sources of energy for biochemical reactions.
   a) Describe the structure of the ATP or GTP molecule.
   b) Explain how chemiosmosis produces ATP.
   c) Describe two specific cell processes that require ATP and explain how ATP is used in each process.
   d) An energy pyramid for a marine ecosystem is shown below. Label each trophic level of the pyramid and provide
      an example of a marine organism found at each level of this pyramid. Explain why the energy available at the top
      layer of the pyramid is a small percentage of the energy present at the bottom of the pyramid.

2010 Question 2
An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme -amylase. Ten mL of a
concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted
several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25oC. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured
every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below.
                                   Time (minutes)          Maltose Concentration (M)
                                           0                              0
                                          10                             5.1
                                          20                             8.6
                                          30                            10.4
                                          40                            11.1
                                          50                           11..2
                                          60                            11.5
    a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes.
    b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes.
    c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of -amylase was doubled.
         Explain your predicted results.
    d) Identify two environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of
         those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme.

2010 Form B Question 1
Biological molecules can be separated by using chromatographic techniques. The diagram below shows the separation of
several spinach leaf pigments by paper chromatography. Using the diagram below
    a) Explain how paper chromatography can be used to separate pigments based on chemical and physical properties.
    b) Discuss the role of pigments in capturing light energy and in converting it to chemical energy of ATP + NADPH.
    c) Use the ruler shown below to determine the Rf value of xanthophyll. Show your calculations.
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