Activity 1: Identifying Respiratory System Organs Activity 2

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                                         Biology 233
                                Human Anatomy and Physiology III
                                     Laboratory Objectives
                                     Respiration Anatomy

Exercise 36: Anatomy of the Respiratory System

We will be performing the following activities:
       Activity 1: Identifying Respiratory System Organs
       Activity 2: Demonstrating Lung Inflation in a Sheep Pluck
       Activity 3: Examining Prepared Slides of Trachea and Lung Tissue

Histology plates in back of Lab Manual
PhysioEx: Histology Review Module
Interactive Physiology 10 System Suite CD ROM: Respiration

The student should be able to recognize, identify and provide a concise functional definition for
each of the following terms, structures and concepts and be able to apply them to appropriate
specimens, models, charts, diagrams, prepared microscope slides and computer simulations as

Be certain to complete the appropriate Lab Objectives at the beginning of each Lab Exercise
as well as the Review Sheet Exercises following the lab.


   1. Oxygen consumption

   2. Carbon dioxide (CO2) production

   3. Cellular respiration

   4. Cellular metabolism

   5. Respiratory system

   6. Respiration

           a. Pulmonary ventilation

           b. External respiration

           c. Transport of respiratory gases

           d. Internal respiration
Upper Respiratory System Structures

   1. Upper respiratory system structures

          a. Nose

          b. Pharynx

          c. Larynx

   2. External nares (nostrils)

   3. Nasal cavity

          a. Nasal septum

                  i. Bony nasal septum

                          1. Perpendicular plate ethmoid

                          2. Perpendicular plate vomer

                 ii. Cartilaginous nasal septum

          b. Nasal conchae

                  i. Superior nasal conchae

                 ii. Inferior nasal conchae

                 iii. Middle nasal conchae

                 iv. *Nasal conchae are sometimes referred to as turbinates

                  v. Nasal mucosa  warmed, filtered and moisturized

                 vi. Olfactory receptors

   4. Paranasal sinuses

          a. Frontal sinus

          b. Sphenoid sinus

          c. Ethmoid sinus

          d. Maxillary sinus

5. Palate

       a. Hard palate

       b. Soft palate

       c. Cleft palate

6. Pharynx

       a. Nasopharynx

               i. Internal nares (posterior nasal aperture)

              ii. Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)

             iii. Auditory, Eustachian or pharyngotympanic tube

             iv. Otitis media

       b. Oropharynx

               i. Palatine tonsils

              ii. Lingual tonsils at base of tongue

       c. Laryngopharynx

7. Larynx  nine cartilages

       a. Thyroid cartilage  with laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple)

       b. Cricoid cartilage

       c. Epiglottis  only laryngeal cartilage composed of elastic cartilage

               i. Glottis

              ii. Cough reflex

       d. Palpate your larynx

       e. Folds

               i. Vestibular folds (false vocal cords)

              ii. Vocal folds (true vocal cords)

          f. Minor cartilages

                  i. Cuneiform

                 ii. Corniculate

                 iii. Arytenoid

          g. Glottis

Lower Respiratory System Structures

   1. Trachea

   2. Primary (main) bronchus  note differences in right and left

   3. Hilum = hilus

   4. Tracheal components

          a. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

          b. Goblet cells

          c. Mucous

          d. Cilia

          e. Tracheal rings

          f. Trachealis muscle

   5. Bronchi

          a. Primary

          b. Secondary

          c. Tertiary

   6. Bronchioles

          a. Bronchioles (Proper)

          b. Terminal bronchioles

          c. Respiratory bronchioles

          d. Note relative amounts of cartilage and smooth muscle

   7. Respiratory tree

   8. Alveolar ducts

   9. Alveolar sacs

   10. Alveoli

   11. Respiratory membrane (air-blood barrier)

          a. Alveoli

          b. Pulmonary capillaries

          c. Basal lamina (Basement membrane)

   12. Respiratory zone structures = RESPIRATORY DIVISION

   13. Conducting zone structures = AIR CONDUCTION AND CONDITIONING DIVISION

   14. Anatomical dead air space

The Lungs and Their Pleural Coverings

   1. Thoracic cavity

   2. Mediastinum

   3. Root  vascular and bronchial attachments

   4. Hilum = hilus

   5. Apex

   6. Base

   7. Diaphragm

   8. Costal surface

   9. Cardiac notch (impression)

   10. Lobes - two left, three right

   11. Pleura

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