MAX PLUS II Programmable Logic Development System

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Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers, Second Edition
                                                              by Gary Dunning


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                                                                               Introduction to programmable logic controllers /
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              TA B L E OF CON TE N TS

Preface   ix
Acknowledgments       xi



                            Part I    Introduction to PLCs

CHAPTER 1    Welcome to the World of Programmable Logic Controllers. . . . . . . .                                        3
   What Is a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)? . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    4
   Where Did the PLC Come From? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    5
   Why Use a PLC? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    6
   What Makes a PLC Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    8
   How Do PLCs Know What They Are Supposed to Do? . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    8
   How Do Instructions Get into the PLC's Memory? . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    9
   Innovations Incorporated into the Programmable Controller             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   11
   Introduction to Fixed and Modular PLC Hardware . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   16
   The Central Processing Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   23

CHAPTER 2    Micro Programmable Logic Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    31
   Overview of Selected Micro PLCs . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   33
   GE Fanuc Automation VersaMax Controllers . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   33
   GE Fanuc Automation Series 90 Micro PLC . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   37
   The Mitsubishi FX2N Super Micro . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   39
   Omron's CPM1A Series Micro PLC . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   44
   Rockwell Automation's MicroLogix 1000 Microcontroller         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   45
   Rockwell Automation's MicroLogix 1500 Microcontroller         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   46
   Siemens Simatic S7-200 Micro PLC. . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   50

CHAPTER 3    Programming a Programmable Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     57
   Handheld Programming Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   58
   Desktop Personal Computers (PCs) and PLC Programming . . . .                      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   63
   Notebook Personal Computers and PLC Programming . . . . . .                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   68
   Windows CE-based Handheld Personal Computers . . . . . . . .                      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   71
   Industrial Computers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   73
   Industrial Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   77
   Open PLC Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   77
   The IEC 1131-3 Programming Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   78
   Soft PLC or Open-architecture Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   88
   One Step Further: Production Data from PLC to Office Databases                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   88

                                                                                                                         iii
iv   TABLE OF CONTENTS



       CHAPTER 4     Number Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                            95
           Number System Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    96
           The Decimal Number System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    97
           Decimal Place Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    97
           Binary and Binary-coded Decimal Numbers . . . . . . . . . . .                          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    98
           Binary Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    98
           Bit Position and Weighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    99
           Binary Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   100
           Binary-coded Decimal (BCD) Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   102
           BCD Number Representation of Numbers Between 10 and 99 .                               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   105
           BCD Representation of the Decimal Numbers 100 through 999                              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   106
           BCD Representation of Four-digit Decimal Values. . . . . . . .                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   106
           Applications of BCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   106
           The Octal Number System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   108
           Valid Octal Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   108
           Octal-to-decimal Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   109
           Binary-to-octal Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   110
           Octal-to-binary Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   111
           The Hexadecimal Number System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   111

       CHAPTER 5     Introduction to PLC Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                           119
           The Digital Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   120
           Analog Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   121
           The Binary Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   122
           Binary Data Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   123
           Correlation of 16-bit Words to Input Signals . . . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   124
           The Input Status File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   128
           The Output Status File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   129
           Input and Output Status Files and Fixed PLCs . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   131
           Differentiating One I/O Screw Terminal from Another.               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   133
           Sixteen-point I/O Modules with Decimal Addressing .                .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   135
           I/O Interaction with the Input and Output Status Files             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   137
           Fixed PLC I/O Addressing When I/O Is Expanded . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   140
           PLC Memory and How It Is Used. . . . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   141
           Data Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   141
           PLC System Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   145
           PLC Application Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   146

       CHAPTER 6     Introduction to Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                        153
           Conventional Ladders versus PLC Ladder Logic.          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   153
           What is Logic? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   156
           Overview of Logic Functions . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   157
           Series--The AND Logic Function . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   158
                                                                                          TABLE OF CONTENTS                                 v



   Three-input AND Logic . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   160
   Parallel Circuits--The OR Logic Function       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   162
   NOT Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   164
   Analysis of Rung #1 . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   165
   Analysis of Rung #2 . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   165
   Parallel NOT Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   166
   Exclusive OR Logic . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   167
   Analysis of Exclusive OR Logic . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   168
   Combinational Logic . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   169
   Priority of Logic Elements . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   170

CHAPTER 7    Input Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                 177
   Input Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   178
   Discrete Input Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   180
   Discrete AC Input Module . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   180
   AC Input Module Specifications. . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   183
   DC Input Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   189
   Sinking and Sourcing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   190
   DC Input Module Operation . . . . . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   194
   DC Sinking Input Module Specifications . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   195
   Solid-state Sensor Interface to DC Input Modules .                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   198
   A Final Note on Sinking and Sourcing. . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   200
   Analog Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   200
   Specialty Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   208

CHAPTER 8    Output Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                 215
   Discrete Output Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                              .   .   216
   Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) Output Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                               .   .   221
   Relay Output Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                             .   .   221
   Module Selection Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                              .   .   226
   Choosing the Proper Output Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                .   .   227
   Isolated Output Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                             .   .   228
   Interposing Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                           .   .   228
   Surge Suppression and Output Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                 .   .   230
   High-density I/O Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                            .   .   231
   Analog Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                           .   .   231
   Emergency-stop Switches and PLC Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                  .   .   232
   I/O Modules in Hazardous Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                               .   .   234
   Hardware Considerations Before Installing PLCs in Class 1, Division 2, Areas                                                   .   .   235

CHAPTER 9    Putting Together a Modular PLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                    241
   Racks, Chassis, or Baseplates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                242
   The Local, or Base, PLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                248
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