Raven/Johnson Biology 8e Chapter 12 1.

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Raven/Johnson Biology 8e                                                         Chapter 12
   1. A true-breeding plant is one that--
          a. produces offspring that are different from the parent
          b. forms hybrid offspring through cross-pollination
          c. produces offspring that are always the same as the parent
          d. can only reproduce with itself

The correct answer is c--
   A. Answer a is incorrect. A true breeding plant will produce offspring that are identical to the
       parent

The correct answer is c--
   B. Answer b is incorrect. True breeding involves self-fertilization, not fertilization between
       two different plants.

The correct answer is c--produces offspring that are always the same as the parent
   C. Answer c is correct. The offspring are genetically identical to the parent.

The correct answer is c--
   D. Answer d is incorrect. True breeding only means that the offspring produced by self-
       fertilization are identical. These plants can be crossed with other true-breeding plants.

   2. What property distinguished Mendel's investigation from previous studies?
        a. Mendel used true-breeding pea plants.
        b. Mendel quantified his results.
        c. Mendel examined many different traits.
        d. Mendel examined the segregation of traits.

The correct answer is b--
   A. Answer a is not correct. Other early researchers had used pea plants.

The correct answer is b--Mendel quantified his results.
   B. Answer b is correct. The fact that Mendel determined the ratio of different phenotypic
       traits led to our current understanding of inheritance.

The correct answer is b--
   C. Answer c is not correct. Other early researchers had examined a variety of traits.

The correct answer is b--
   D. Answer d is not correct. The segregation of traits had been observed by others.

   3. A monohybrid cross--
         a. is the same as self-fertilization
         b. examines a single variant of a trait
         c. produces a single offspring
         d. examines two variants of a single trait

The correct answer is d--
       A. Answer a is not correct. Monohybrid crosses can be made between two individuals.
Raven/Johnson Biology 8e                                                        Chapter 12
The correct answer is d--
       B. Answer b is not correct. A monohybrid cross examines two versions of a single trait.

The correct answer is d--
       C. Answer c is not correct. The term monohybrid refers to the trait being examined, not
           the number of offspring.

The correct answer is d--examines two variants of a single trait
       D. Answer d is correct. A monohybrid cross examines a single trait with two versions
           (e.g., purple versus white flowers).

   4. What was the appearance of the F1 generation of a monohybrid cross of purple (PP) and
      white (pp) flower pea plants?
         a. All the F1 plants had white flowers.
         b. The F1 plants had a light purple or blended appearance.
         c. All the F1 plants had purple flowers.
         d. The most of the F1 (3/4) had purple flowers, but 1/4 of the plants had white.

The correct answer is c--
   A. Answer a is incorrect. The purple flower color is the dominant trait, so the F1 generation
       (Pp) cannot appear white.

The correct answer is c--
   B. Answer b is incorrect. The phenotype for flower color did not blend. Rather, it provided
       evidence for the principle of segregation.

The correct answer is c--All the F1 plants had purple flowers.
   C. Answer c is correct. The genotype of the F1 generation would be Pp, meaning that these
       individuals would be heterozygous and would have the appearance of the dominant
       phenotype.

The correct answer is c--
   D. Answer d is incorrect. A plant with white flowers would have to be homozygous
       recessive. All of the F1 individuals from this monohybrid cross would be heterozygous.

   5. The F1 plants from the previous question are allowed to self-fertilize. What will the
      phenotypic ratio be for this F2?
         a. All purple
         b. 1 purple:1 white
         c. 3 purple:1 white
         d. 3 white:1 purple

The correct answer is c--
   A. Answer a is incorrect. The F1 is all purple, but segregation will occur in the F2.

The correct answer is c--
   B. Answer b is incorrect. The phenotypic ratio for a test cross of the F1 heterozygote would
       be 1 purple:1 white, but not for a self-cross.
Raven/Johnson Biology 8e                                                        Chapter 12
The correct answer is c--3 purple:1 white
   C. Answer c is correct. Self-crossing a heterozygous F1 would produce a ratio of 3 dominant
       to 1 recessive.

The correct answer is c--
   D. Answer d is incorrect. The ratio is correct in terms of numbers (3:1), but the white trait is
       recessive and the purple trait is dominant (see previous problem) so the ratio is reversed.

   6. Which of the following is NOT a part of Mendel's five-element model?
        a. Traits have alternative forms (what we now call alleles).
        b. Parents transmit discrete traits to their offspring.
        c. If an allele is present it will be expressed.
        d. Traits do not blend .

The correct answer is c--
   A. Answer a is incorrect. The fact that traits have alternative forms was critical for Mendel's
       observations.

The correct answer is c--
   B. Answer b is incorrect. Mendel concluded that parents transmitted discrete units of
       information that determined the traits of the offspring.

The correct answer is c--If an allele is present it will be expressed.
   C. Answer c is correct. Alleles are not always expressed. Some alleles are dominant while
       others are recessive.

The correct answer is c--
   D. Answer d is incorrect. Mendel did not observe blending of traits.

   7. A heterozygous individual is one that carries--
         a. two completely different sets of genes
         b. two identical alleles for a particular gene
         c. only one functional allele
         d. two different alleles for a given gene

The correct answer is d--
   A. Answer a is incorrect. The concept of heterozygosity relates to a single gene, not the
       entire genome.

The correct answer is d--
   B. Answer b is incorrect. A heterozygous individual has two different versions of a single
       gene.

The correct answer is d--
   C. Answer c is incorrect. A heterozygous individual has two alleles; however, one is
       dominant while the other is recessive.

The correct answer is d--two different alleles for a given gene
Raven/Johnson Biology 8e                                                       Chapter 12
   D. Answer d is correct. A heterozygous individual has a dominant and a recessive copy of a
      single allele.

   8. An organism's ___________ is determined by its _____________.
         a. genotype; phenotype
         b. phenotype; genotype
         c. alleles; phenotype
         d. F1 generation; alleles

The correct answer is b--
   A. Answer a is incorrect. The genotype is the controlling factor that determines phenotype.

The correct answer is b--phenotype; genotype
   B. Answer b is correct. The phenotype of an individual is determined by the alleles that
       make up that individual's genotype.

The correct answer is b--
   C. Answer c is incorrect. The alleles are the genes that determine the phenotype of the
       individual

The correct answer is b--
   D. Answer d is incorrect. The F1 generation is the product of reproduction and so would
       depend on the genetic makeup of the gametes.

   9. Which of the following represent the phenotype for the recessive human trait, albinism?
        a. Absence of the pigment melanin
        b. Presence of a nonfunctional allele for the enzyme tyrosinase
        c. Absence of the enzyme tyrosinase from the individual's cells
        d. Both a and c

The correct answer is d--
   A. Answer a is incorrect. Although albinism is associated with a lack of pigment, that is not
       the only phenotypic trait.

The correct answer is d--
   B. Answer b is incorrect. The allele for the enzyme tyrosinase is nonfunctional; however,
       this represents the genotype of the individual, not phenotype.

The correct answer is d--
   C. Answer c is incorrect. The absence of the enzyme is part of the phenotype; however, it
       does not represent the total phenotype.

The correct answer is d--Both a and c
   D. Answer d is correct. The phenotype represents all observed effects of the genotype; that
       is, the absence of the enzyme and the resulting absence of pigment.

   10. A dihybrid cross between a plant with long smooth leaves and a plant with short hairy
       leaves produces a long smooth F1. If this F1 is allowed to self-cross to produce an F2, what
       would you predict for the ratio of F2 phenotypes?
Raven/Johnson Biology 8e                                                           Chapter 12
           a.   9 long smooth:3 long hairy:3 short hairy:1 short smooth
           b.   9 long smooth:3 long hairy:3 short smooth:1 short hairy
           c.   9 short hairy:3 long hairy:3 short smooth:1 long smooth
           d.   1 long smooth:1 long hairy:1 short smooth:1 short hairy

The correct answer is b--
   A. Answer a is incorrect. The double-recessive phenotype (short hairy) is switched with
       recessive for length and dominant for texture (short smooth).

The correct answer is b--9 long smooth:3 long hairy:3 short smooth:1 short hairy
   B. Answer b is correct. The phenotypic ratio should be 9 dom dom:3 dom rec:3 rec dom:1
       rec rec.

The correct answer is b--
   C. Answer c is incorrect. The double-dominant phenotype (long smooth) is switched with
       the double recessive (short hairy).

The correct answer is b--
   D. Answer d is incorrect. This 1:1:1:1 ratio would be seen in a test cross not in a self-cross of
       the F1.

   11. A testcross is used to determine if an individual is--
          a. homozygous dominant or heterozygous
          b. homozygous recessive or homozygous dominant
          c. heterozygous
          d. true breeding

The correct answer is a--homozygous dominant or heterozygous
   A. Answer a is correct. The ratio of phenotypes produced from a testcross allows for the
       determination of whether an individual is homozygous dominant or heterozygous.

The correct answer is a--
   B. Answer b is incorrect. The phenotypes of these two individuals would be very different.
       No testcross would be needed.

The correct answer is a--
   C. Answer c is incorrect. The phenotypic ratio resulting from a testcross would establish
       whether an individual was heterozygous, but it can also be used to distinguish between
       heterozygous and homozygous dominant individuals.

The correct answer is a--
   D. Answer d is incorrect. A testcross is used to determine whether an individual is
       heterozygous or homozygous dominant. The test for whether an individual is true
       breeding is whether self-fertilization results in offspring that are identical to the parent.

   12. What is a polygenic trait?
         a. A set of multiple phenotypes determined by a single gene.
         b. A single phenotypic trait determined by a two alleles.
         c. A single phenotypic trait determined by more than one gene.
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