Army Leadership

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FM 6-22 (FM 22-100)




                                 Army Leadership
                                Competent, Confident, and Agile




                                         OCTOBER 2006




DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.




                   Headquarters, Department of the Army
                                Foreword
Competent leaders of character are necessary for the Army to meet the challenges in the
dangerous and complex security environment we face.
FM 6-22 is the Army's keystone field manual on leadership. It establishes leadership
doctrine and fundamental principles for all officers, noncommissioned officers, and
Army civilians across all components.
This manual uses the BE-KNOW-DO concept to express what is required of Army
leaders. It is critical that Army leaders be agile, multiskilled pentathletes who have
strong moral character, broad knowledge, and keen intellect. They must display these
attributes and leader competencies bound by the concept of the Warrior Ethos. Leaders
must be committed to lifelong learning to remain relevant and ready during a career of
service to the Nation.
Army leaders must set the example, teach, and mentor, and this manual provides the
principles, concepts, and training to accomplish this important task on which America
depends.




                                           PETER J. SCHOOMAKER
                                           General, United States Army
                                           Chief of Staff




This    publication      is    available     at    Army      Knowledge         Online
(www.us.army.mil) and General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine
Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil).
                                                                                                             *FM 6-22 (FM 22-100)
Field Manual                                                                                                         Headquarters
No. 6-22                                                                                                   Department of the Army
                                                                                                  Washington, DC, 12 October 2006




                                          Army Leadership
                           Competent, Confident, and Agile

                                                          Contents
                                                                                                                                      Page
                  PREFACE ..............................................................................................................v
                  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.....................................................................................vi
                  INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................viii

                                PART ONE                THE BASIS OF LEADERSHIP
Chapter 1         LEADERSHIP DEFINED ................................................................................... 1-1
                  Influencing .......................................................................................................... 1-2
                  Operating............................................................................................................ 1-3
                  Improving ............................................................................................................ 1-3
Chapter 2         THE FOUNDATIONS OF ARMY LEADERSHIP............................................... 2-1
                  The Founding Documents of our Nation ............................................................ 2-1
                  The Civilian-Military Linkage .............................................................................. 2-1
                  Leadership and Command Authority.................................................................. 2-3
                  The Army Leadership Requirements Model....................................................... 2-3
                  Excelling at the Core Leader Competencies...................................................... 2-7
Chapter 3         LEADERSHIP ROLES, LEADERSHIP LEVELS, AND LEADERSHIP TEAMS3-1
                  Roles and Relationships..................................................................................... 3-1
                  Levels of Leadership .......................................................................................... 3-5
                  Leader Teams .................................................................................................... 3-8
                  Team Structures ................................................................................................. 3-9

    PART TWO           THE ARMY LEADER: PERSON OF CHARACTER, PRESENCE AND
                                            INTELLECT
Chapter 4         LEADER CHARACTER..................................................................................... 4-1
                  Army Values ....................................................................................................... 4-2
                  Empathy.............................................................................................................. 4-9
                  The Warrior Ethos ............................................................................................ 4-10
                  Character Development ................................................................................... 4-12
                  Character and Beliefs ....................................................................................... 4-12
                  Character and Ethics ........................................................................................ 4-14
Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
This publication supersedes FM 22-100, 31 August 1999.

                                                                                                                                               i
Contents

Chapter 5    LEADER PRESENCE ........................................................................................5-1
             Military and Professional Bearing .......................................................................5-1
             Health Fitness .....................................................................................................5-2
             Physical Fitness ..................................................................................................5-2
             Confidence ..........................................................................................................5-2
             Resilience............................................................................................................5-3
Chapter 6    LEADER INTELLIGENCE..................................................................................6-1
             Mental Agility.......................................................................................................6-1
             Sound Judgment.................................................................................................6-2
             Innovation............................................................................................................6-2
             Interpersonal Tact ...............................................................................................6-3
             Domain Knowledge.............................................................................................6-5

     PART THREE COMPETENCY-BASED LEADERSHIP FOR DIRECT THROUGH
                              STRATEGIC LEVELS
Chapter 7    LEADING ............................................................................................................7-3
             Leads Others.......................................................................................................7-4
             Extends Influence Beyond the Chain of Command..........................................7-11
             Leads by Example ............................................................................................7-13
             Communicates ..................................................................................................7-14
Chapter 8    DEVELOPING.....................................................................................................8-1
             Creates a Positive Environment..........................................................................8-1
             Prepares Self ......................................................................................................8-6
             Develops Others .................................................................................................8-9
Chapter 9    ACHIEVING ........................................................................................................9-1
             Providing Direction, Guidance, and Priorities .....................................................9-1
             Developing and Executing Plans ........................................................................9-2
             Accomplishing Missions......................................................................................9-5
             Competencies Applied for Success ....................................................................9-7
Chapter 10   INFLUENCES ON LEADERSHIP ....................................................................10-1
             Challenges of the Operating Environment........................................................10-1
             Stress In Combat ..............................................................................................10-4
             Stress in Training ..............................................................................................10-7
             Dealing With the Stress of Change...................................................................10-7
             Tools for Adaptability ........................................................................................10-8

       PART FOUR LEADING AT ORGANIZATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS
Chapter 11   ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP .................................................................11-1
             Leading .............................................................................................................11-1
             Developing ........................................................................................................11-4
             Achieving...........................................................................................................11-8
Chapter 12   STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP .............................................................................12-1
             Leading .............................................................................................................12-2
             Developing ........................................................................................................12-9
             Achieving.........................................................................................................12-13



ii                                                        FM 6-22                                                   12 October 2006
                                                                                                                                         Contents

Appendix A         LEADER ATTRIBUTES AND CORE LEADER COMPETENCIES...................A-1
Appendix B         COUNSELING....................................................................................................B-1
                   Types of Developmental Counseling ................................................................. B-1
                   The Leader as a Counselor................................................................................ B-4
                   The Qualities of the Counselor........................................................................... B-4
                   Accepting Limitations.......................................................................................... B-6
                   Adaptive Approaches to Counseling .................................................................. B-8
                   Counseling Techniques...................................................................................... B-8
                   The Four-Stage Counseling Process ................................................................. B-9
                   Summary--The Counseling Process at a Glance ........................................... B-14
Glossary            ............................................................................................................... Glossary-1
References         ...........................................................................................................References-1
Index               ..................................................................................................................... Index-1



                                                              Figures
        Figure 2-1. The Army Values ................................................................................................. 2-2
        Figure 2-2. The Army leadership requirements model........................................................... 2-4
        Figure 2-3. Eight core leader competencies and supporting behaviors................................. 2-7
        Figure 3-1. The NCO vision.................................................................................................... 3-3
        Figure 3-2. The Army civilian corps creed.............................................................................. 3-4
        Figure 3-3. Army leadership levels......................................................................................... 3-6
        Figure 4-1. The Soldier's Creed ...........................................................................................4-10
        Figure 8-1. Stages of team building .....................................................................................8-18
        Figure A-1. The Army leadership requirements model ..........................................................A-1
        Figure A-2. Competency of leads others and associated components and actions..............A-2
        Figure A-3. Competency of extends influence beyond the chain of command and
                    associated components and actions...................................................................A-3
        Figure A-4. Competency of leads by example and associated components and
                    actions.................................................................................................................A-4
        Figure A-5. Competency of communicates and associated components and actions ..........A-5
        Figure A-6. Competency of creates a positive environment and associated
                    components and actions .....................................................................................A-6
        Figure A-7. Competency of prepares self and associated components and actions.............A-7
        Figure A-8. Competency of develops others and associated components and actions ........A-8
        Figure A-9. Competency of gets results and associated components and actions ...............A-9
        Figure A-10. Attributes associated with a leader of character (identity) ............................. A-10
        Figure A-11. Attributes associated with a leader with presence ......................................... A-10
        Figure A-12. Attributes associated with a leader with intellectual capacity......................... A-11
        Figure B-1. Support activities .................................................................................................B-7
        Figure B-2. Counseling approach summary chart..................................................................B-8
        Figure B-3. Example of a counseling outline....................................................................... B-10



12 October 2006                                                 FM 6-22                                                                       iii
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