Answers,Suggestions,and Tips – Bravepages

Text Preview:
Moore-Parker: Critical     Back Matter           Answers, Suggestions, and                          The McGraw-Hill
Thinking, Eighth Edition                         Tips for Triangle Exercises                       Companies, 2007




     Answers, Suggestions, and Tips                                                                                    509


             for Triangle Exercises

Chapter 1: Critical Thinking Basics

Exercise 1-1                                                     ment and claim d is the conclusion. (Claim
                                                                 c misstates the issue.)
 1. An argument offers a reason or reasons for be-
    lieving a claim is true. More technically, an          4. c. The remainder of the passage provides exam-
    argument consists of a conclusion and the                    ples of what is claimed in c. The claims in
    premise or premises (the reason or reasons) said             which these examples appear function as
    to support it.                                               premises for c.
 4. False                                                 13. b. There is a lot of information in this passage,
                                                                 but answer (b) is certainly the main issue of
 7. All arguments have a conclusion, though the
                                                                 the selection. The easiest way to see this is
    conclusion may not be explicitly stated.
                                                                 to notice that almost all of the claims made
10. It can be implied.                                           in the passage support this one. We'd put an-
13. No                                                           swer (c) in second place.
16. False                                                 14. c. Answers (a) and (b) don't capture the futility
19. True                                                         of the prison policy expressed in the passage;
                                                                 answer (d) goes beyond what is expressed in
20. True                                                         the passage.
Exercise 1-3                                              15. b
                                                          16. b
 1. Argument
                                                          20. c
 4. No argument
 7. No argument; Professor X is simply expressing         Exercise 1-6
    an opinion. Saying that "there is good reason
    for increasing the class size" doesn't actually        1. Whether police brutality happens very often
    introduce a reason.                                    4. Whether there exists a world that is essentially
 8. Argument. Conclusion: The dentist's billing               independent of our minds
    practices are justified.                               7. Whether a person who buys a computer should
11. Consumer Reports seems to be suggesting that              take some lessons
    the watch may not really be water resistant,          10. Whether Native Americans, as true conserva-
    and giving a reason to support this suggestion.           tionists, have something to teach readers about
    We'd call this an argument.                               our relationship to the earth. There are other
                                                              points made in the passage, but they are sub-
Exercise 1-4                                                  sidiary to this one.
 1. No argument
                                                          Exercise 1-7
 4. Argument. Conclusion: Computers will never
    be able to converse intelligently through speech.      1. There are two issues: whether they're going on
 7. Argument. Conclusion: Fears that chemicals in             Standard Time the next weekend and whether
    teething rings and soft plastic toys may cause            they'll need to set the clocks forward or back.
    cancer may be justified.                                  Both speakers address both issues.
10. No argument                                            4. The issue is whether complaints about Ameri-
                                                              can intervention abroad are good or bad. Both
13. No argument (Warren says that there are rea-              speakers address this issue.
    sons for her conclusion, but she doesn't tell us
    what they are.)                                       Exercise 1-8
16. No argument
                                                           1. Suburbanite misses Urbanite's point. Urbanite
19. No argument                                               addresses the effects of the requirement; Sub-
                                                              urbanite addresses the issue of whether he and
Exercise 1-5                                                  his neighbors can afford to comply with it.
 1. a. The other three claims in the paragraph are         3. On the surface, it may seem that both Hands ad-
       offered as reasons for the claim that Hank             dress the issue of whether a person such as One
       ought not to take the math course.                     Hand can feel safe in her own home. But it's
 3. d. Answers a and b are given as reasons for be-           clear that One Hand's real issue is whether the
       lieving claim d; they are premises of an argu-         large number of handguns makes one unsafe in
      Moore-Parker: Critical         Back Matter               Answers, Suggestions, and                            The McGraw-Hill
      Thinking, Eighth Edition                                 Tips for Triangle Exercises                         Companies, 2007




510                              ANSWERS, SUGGESTIONS, AND TIPS FOR TRIANGLE EXERCISES


                       one's own home. Other Hand ignores this issue                 4. The Coors Brewing Company began offering
                       completely.                                                      gay partners the same benefits as spouses in
                    5. The issue for both parties is whether Fed-Up                     1995.
                       will be happier if he retires to Arkansas.                    7. McCovey was able to finish the assignment on
                                                                                        time.
                  Exercise 1-9                                                      10. The Reverend Jesse Jackson's visit to Pakistan
                  The distinction used is between claims that address                   has been delayed due to lack of support from
                  subjective issues and those that do not.                              the Bush administration.
                   1. Not subjective                                                13. For two years the rapidly expanding global
                                                                                        computer matrix had concerned Gates.
                   4. Subjective
                   7. Not subjective
                                                                                    Exercise 1-13
                  10. Not subjective
                                                                                     1. No subjective elements present
                  Exercise 1-10                                                      4. No subjective elements present
                   1. Not subjective                                                 7. The second sentence is arguably subjective, since
                                                                                        the phrase "on the face of it" is something about
                   4. Not subjectived
                                                                                        which disagreements might be difficult to settle.
                   7. Not subjective. Although this is not possible to                  On the other hand, the phrase "might be" is such
                      resolve as a practical matter, we can at least                    a strong weaseler (see Chapter 4), one might say
                      imagine circumstances under which we could                        that this sentence commits to very little at all.
                      test for life on any given planet.
                                                                                    10. One might change the second sentence to read,
                  10. Subjective                                                        "Those who felt character was important went
                  13. This is clearly a question about a moral value                    on to elect one who some think has the feeblest
                      judgment. This one is very controversial, of                      intellect of any president in history."
                      course, and if there were an agreed-upon method
                      of settling the issue, it would have long since               Exercise 1-14
                      ceased to be so controversial. But controversy
                      as such does not mean that the question raises                 1.      b
                      a purely subjective issue; on the contrary, the                4.      b
                      controversy in this case suggests that at least                7.      b
                      some of the moral issues raised are not subjec-               10.      a
                      tive. They are certainly not seen as subjective
                      by those who take sides in the controversy.
                                                                                    Exercise 1-15
                  Exercise 1-11                                                      1.      Argument
                  The subjective claims are all but 2, 4, 6, 8.                      4.      Argument
                                                                                     7.      Explanation
                  Exercise 1-12                                                     10.      Explanation
                    1. The house, a two-story colonial-style building,
                       burned to the ground.



                  Chapter 2: Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking,
                  and Clear Writing

                  Exercise 2-1                                                       7. a.       But it's close.
                  In order of decreasing vagueness:                                 10. b
                   1. (d), (e), (b), (c), (f), and (a). Compare (e) and (b). If     15. a
                       Eli and Sarah made plans for the future, then
                       they certainly discussed it. But just discussing
                       it is more vague--they could do that with or                 Exercise 2-3
                       without making plans.                                          1. Too vague. Sure, you can't say exactly how
                   4. (c), (d), (e), (a), (b)                                            much longer you want it cooked, but you can
                                                                                         provide guidelines; for example, "Cook it until
                  Exercise 2-2                                                           it isn't pink."
                    1. a                                                              4. Not too vague.
                    4. b                                                              7. Not too vague.
Moore-Parker: Critical     Back Matter             Answers, Suggestions, and                            The McGraw-Hill
Thinking, Eighth Edition                           Tips for Triangle Exercises                         Companies, 2007




                                            ANSWERS, SUGGESTIONS, AND TIPS FOR TRIANGLE EXERCISES                          511


10. If this is the first time you are making frosting           other matter; such a conclusion may not be
    or if you are an inexperienced cook, this phrase            supported by the price-earnings figure.
    is too vague.                                            4. "Attend church regularly" is a bit vague; a person
                                                                who goes to church each and every Christmas
Exercise 2-5                                                    and Easter is a regular, although infrequent, at-
"Feeding" simply means "fertilizing" and is not                 tender. We don't find "majority" too vague in
too vague. "Frequently" is too vague. "No more                  this usage.
than half" is not too vague. "Label-recommended              7. "Contained more insights" is much too vague.
amounts" is not too vague. "New year's growth                   The student needs to know more specifically
begins" and "each bloom period ends" are pretty                 what was the matter with his or her paper, or
vague for a novice gardener, but because pinpoint               at least what was better about the roommate's
timing apparently isn't crucial, the vagueness here             paper.
is acceptable. "Similar" is too vague for a novice          10. These two sorts of things are much too differ-
gardener. "Immediately after bloom" suggests that               ent to be compared in this way. If you're starv-
precise timing is important here, and we find the               ing, the chicken looks better; if you need to get
phrase too vague, at least for novices. "When the               from here to there, it's the Volkswagen. (This
nights begin cooling off" is too vague even if preci-           is the kind of question Moore likes to ask peo-
sion in timing isn't terribly important.                        ple. Nobody can figure out why.)
Exercise 2-6
                                                            Exercise 2-10
 1. Twenty percent more than what? (You might
    wonder what "real dairy butter" is, but it's             1. The Raider tackle blocked the Giants line-
    probably safe to assume that it's just plain old            backer.
    butter.)                                                 4. How Therapy Can Help Victims of Torture
 4. This is not too bad, but the word "desert" cov-          7. Susan's nose resembles Hillary Clinton's.
    ers a lot of territory--not all deserts are like the    10. 6 Coyotes That Maul Girl Are Killed by Police
    Sahara.
                                                            13. Second sentence: More than one disease can be
 7. The comparison is okay, but don't jump to the               carried and passed along to humans by a single
    conclusion that today's seniors are better stu-             tick.
    dents. Maybe the teachers are easier graders.
                                                            16. We give to life good things.
10. In the absence of absolute figures, this claim
    does not provide any information about how              19. Dunkelbrau--for those who crave the best-
    good attendance was (or about how brilliant                 tasting real German beer
    the season was).                                        22. Jordan could write additional profound essays.
                                                            25. When she lay down to nap, she was disturbed
Exercise 2-7                                                    by a noisy cow.
 1. Superior? In what way? More realistic character         28. When Queen Elizabeth appeared before her
    portrayal? Better expression of emotion? Proba-             troops, they all shouted "harrah."
    bly the claim means only "I like Paltrow more           31. AT&T, for as long as your business lasts.
    than I like Blanchett."
                                                            32. This class might have had a member of the op-
 4. Fine, but don't infer that they both grade the              posite sex for a teacher.
    same. Maybe Smith gives 10 percent A's and 10
                                                            33. Married 10 times before, woman gets 9 years in
    percent F's, 20 percent B's and 20 percent D's,
                                                                prison for killing her husband.
    and 40 percent C's, whereas Jones gives every-
    one a C. Who do you think is the more discrim-
    inating grader, given this breakdown?                   Exercise 2-11
 7. Well, first of all, what is "long-distance"? Sec-        1. As a group
    ond, and more important, how is endurance
                                                             4. As a group
    measured? People do debate such issues, but
    the best way to begin a debate on this point             7. It's more likely that the claim refers to the Gi-
    would be by spelling out what you mean by "re-              ants as a group, but it's possible that it refers to
    quires more endurance."                                     the play of individuals.
10. This is like a comparison of apples and oranges.        10. As individuals
    How can the popularity of a movie be compared           12. Probably as individuals
    with the popularity of a song?                          15. Ambiguous. If the claim means that people are
                                                                living longer than they used to, the reference is
Exercise 2-8                                                    to people as individuals. If the claim means
 1. The price-earnings ratio is a traditional (and              that the human race is getting older, then the
    reasonable) measure of a stock, and the figure              reference is to people as a group. If the claim
    is precise enough. Whether this is good enough              expresses the truism that to live is to age, then
    reason to worry about the stock market is an-               the reference is to people as individuals.
      Moore-Parker: Critical         Back Matter            Answers, Suggestions, and                             The McGraw-Hill
      Thinking, Eighth Edition                              Tips for Triangle Exercises                          Companies, 2007




512                              ANSWERS, SUGGESTIONS, AND TIPS FOR TRIANGLE EXERCISES


                  Exercise 2-12                                                   7. Soldiers should be prepared to sacrifice their
                                                                                     lives for their comrades.
                   1. "Piano" is defined analytically.
                                                                                 10. Petitioners over sixty should have completed
                   4. "Red planet" is defined by synonym. (This one
                                                                                     form E-7.
                      is tricky because it looks like a definition by
                      example. But there is only one red planet, so              13. Language is nature's greatest gift to humanity.
                      the phrase refers to exactly the same object as            16. The proof must be acceptable to the rational
                      the word "Mars.")                                              individual.
                   8. "Chiaroscuro" is defined by synonym.                       17. The country's founders believed in the equal-
                  11. "Significant other" is defined by example--sev-                ity of all.
                      eral of them.                                              20. Athletes who want to play for the National
                                                                                     Football League should have a good work ethic.
                  Exercise 2-14                                                  24. Most U.S. senators are men.
                  7, 6, 4, 1, 3, 2, 5                                            27. Mr. Macleod doesn't know it, but Ms. Macleod
                                                                                     is a feminist.
                  Exercise 2-15                                                  30. To be a good politician, you have to be a good
                    1. Students should choose their majors with con-                 salesperson.
                       siderable care.
                    4. If a nurse can find nothing wrong with you in a           Exercise 2-16
                       preliminary examination, a physician will be
                                                                                 In case you couldn't figure it out, the friend is a
                       recommended to you. However, in this city
                                                                                 woman.
                       physicians wish to protect themselves by hav-
                       ing you sign a waiver.




                  Chapter 3: Credibility

                  Exercise 3-5                                                        gate health claims of the sort in question with
                                                                                      reasonable objectivity. The company that makes
                  Something like number 9 is probably true, given the
                                                                                      the product is the least credible source because
                  huge, almost unimaginable difference in wealth be-
                                                                                      it is the most likely to be biased. The owner of
                  tween the richest and the poorest people on the
                                                                                      the health food store may be very knowledge-
                  planet, but we have no idea what the actual numbers
                                                                                      able regarding nutrition but is not a credible
                  are. We've seen number 12 going around the Web,
                                                                                      source regarding drugs. Your local pharmacist
                  but we don't know whether there's anything to it
                                                                                      can reasonably be regarded as credible, but he
                  and we're not interested in conducting the appropri-
                                                                                      or she may not have access to as much infor-
                  ate experiments. We think the rest of these don't
                                                                                      mation as the FDA or CR.
                  have much of a chance (although there are conspir-
                  acy theorists who seem to believe number 10.)                    2. It would probably be a mistake to consider any
                                                                                      of the individuals on this list more expert than
                  Exercise 3-8                                                        the others, although different kinds and differ-
                                                                                      ent levels of bias are fairly predictable on the
                    1. In terms of expertise, we'd list (d), (c), and                 parts of the victim's father, the NRA represen-
                       (b) first. Given what we've got to go on, we                   tative, and possibly the police chief. The sena-
                       wouldn't assign expert status to either (a) or (e).            tor might be expected to have access to more
                       We'd list all entries as likely to be fairly unbi-             data that are relevant to the issue, but that
                       ased except for (a), which we would expect to                  would not in itself make his or her credibility
                       be very biased.                                                much greater than that of the others. The prob-
                    3. Expertise: (b) first, then (a), then (c) and (d)               lem here is that we are dealing with a value
                       about equal, and (e) last. We'd figure that (b) is             judgment that depends very heavily upon an
                       most likely to be unbiased, with (c), (d), and (e)             individual's point of view rather than his or her
                       close behind; Choker would be a distant last on                expertise. What is important to this question
                       this scale. Her bad showing on the bias scale                  is less the credibility of the person who gives
                       more than makes up for her high showing on                     us an answer than the strength of the support-
                       the expertise scale.                                           ing argument, if any, that he or she provides.
                                                                                   3. Although problem 2 hinges on a value judg-
                  Exercise 3-9                                                        ment, this one calls for an interpretation of the
                    1. The most credible choices are either the FDA                   original intent of a constitutional amendment.
                       or Consumer Reports, both of which investi-                    Here our choices would be either the Supreme
Moore-Parker: Critical     Back Matter           Answers, Suggestions, and                           The McGraw-Hill
Thinking, Eighth Edition                         Tips for Triangle Exercises                        Companies, 2007




                                           ANSWERS, SUGGESTIONS, AND TIPS FOR TRIANGLE EXERCISES                        513


      Court justice or the constitutional historian,          precise about such matters; Campbell will
      with a slight preference for the latter because         most likely lay off about 650 workers, includ-
      Supreme Court justices are concerned more               ing about 175 at its headquarters.
      with constitutional issues as they have been         8. We'd accept this as likely.
      interpreted by other courts than with original
                                                          12. No doubt cats that live indoors do tend to live
      intent. The NRA representative is paid to
                                                              longer than cats that are subject to the perils of
      speak for a certain point of view and would be
                                                              outdoor life. If statistics on how much longer
      the least credible in our view. The senator and
                                                              indoor cats live on the average were available,
      the U.S. President would fall somewhere in be-
                                                              we'd expect the manufacturer to know them.
      tween: Both might reasonably be expected to
                                                              But we suspect that such statistics would be
      be knowledgeable about constitutional issues,
                                                              difficult to establish (and probably not worth
      but much less so than our first two choices.
                                                              the effort), and we therefore have little confi-
Exercise 3-10                                                 dence in the statistic cited here.
                                                          20. It's quite possible, though the Defamer blog
 1. Professor Jensen would possess the greatest de-           bills itself as "the Hollywood gossip sheet"
    gree of credibility and authority on (d), (f), and        (which suggests it trades in rumor and innu-
    (h), and, compared with someone who had not               endo) and does not say whether the request, if
    lived in both places, on (i).                             it was really made, was granted. The Defamer
                                                              may be fun, scurrilous reading, and may even
Exercise 3-12                                                 get the information correct sometimes, but it's
 1. We'd accept this as probably true--but proba-             not a reliable source.
    bly only approximately true. It's difficult to be



Chapter 4: Persuasion Through Rhetoric:
Common Devices and Techniques

Exercise 4-1                                              14. "Luddites" (those opposed to technological
                                                              progress) is a rhetorical analogy; the entire pas-
 2.   a
                                                              sage is designed to suggest that cable and satel-
 4.   b                                                       lite TV are near universal in acceptance and
 7.   a                                                       use and to characterize in a negative light those
10.   d                                                       (few?) who haven't become subscribers.
12.   c
                                                          Exercise 4-12
13.   a
                                                           1. "Japan, Inc." is a dysphemism.
15    T
                                                           4. "Getting access" is a euphemism, and, in this
                                                              context, so is "constituents." We'll bet it isn't
Exercise 4-2                                                  just any old constituent who gets the same
(1) hyperbole (in Chapter 6 we'll call this "straw            kind of "access" as big campaign contributors.
man"), (2) dysphemism, (3) not a rhetorical device,        7. The last sentence is hyperbolic.
(4) dysphemism, (5) not a rhetorical device, (6) dys-
phemism                                                   10. (We really like this one.) "Even," in the first
                                                              sentence, is innuendo, insinuating that mem-
Exercise 4-3                                                  bers of Congress are more difficult to embar-
                                                              rass than others. The remainder is another case
(1) dysphemism, (2) dysphemism, (3) hyperbole, (4)            of innuendo with a dash of downplaying. Al-
weaseler, (5) proof surrogate, (6) not a downplayer in        though it's a first-class example, it's different
this context, (7) loaded question                             from the usual ones. Mellinkoff makes you
                                                              think that Congress merely passes a law in re-
Exercise 4-10                                                 sponse to the situation. But stop and think for
 1. The quotation marks downplay the quality of               a moment: Aside from the odd congressional
    the school.                                               hearing or impeachment trial, all that Con-
                                                              gress can do is pass laws! So Mellinkoff's
 4. Persuasive definition
                                                              charge really should not be seen as belittling
 6. No rhetorical device present                              Congress at all.
 8. "Gaming" is a euphemism for "gambling."               13. "As you know" is a variety of proof surrogate.
11. "Clearly" is a proof surrogate; the final phrase          The remainder is a rhetorical analogy, in this
    is hyperbole.                                             case a comparison.
Download Link:
Share Link: Forum Link:

More on Culture & Politics

  • Picture: Human Anatomy & Physiology - PHSchool.com

    Human Anatomy & Physiology – PHSchool.com

    File Size: 1,891.58 KB, Pages: 30, Views: 513,843 views

    Human Anatomy & Physiology Eighth Edition FLORIDA EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn Taken from: Human Anatomy & Physiology, Eighth Edition by Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn Learning Solutions New York Boston San Francisco London Toronto Sydney Tokyo Singapore Madrid Mexico City Munich Paris …
  • Picture: Resident Personal Income Tax Booklet - azdor.gov

    Resident Personal Income Tax Booklet – azdor.gov

    File Size: 929.14 KB, Pages: 56, Views: 616,036 views

    2 15 Arizona Form 140 Resident Personal Income Tax Booklet Who can use Arizona Form 140? This Booklet Contains: You, and your spouse if married filing a joint return, may file Form 140 only if you are full year residents of Arizona. x Form 140 …
  • Picture: The Euler Family Reunion: Helping Students Visualize

    The Euler Family Reunion: Helping Students Visualize

    File Size: 1,111.10 KB, Pages: 17, Views: 328,406 views

    The Euler Family Reunion: Helping Students Visualize, Construct, Sketch, and Understand Basic Geometric Concepts Martha Barker, Candace Brame, William Flythe, and LeatonjaSallee Discrete Mathematics for Teachers MATH 539, Summer 2009 The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) recommended that discrete mathematics be "an integral …
  • Picture: A Good Man Is Hard to Find - MerionTaynton - home

    A Good Man Is Hard to Find – MerionTaynton – home

    File Size: 344.61 KB, Pages: 18, Views: 16,366 views

    A Good Man Is Hard to Find by Flannery O'Connor Copyright Notice 1998-2002; 2002 by Gale Cengage. Gale is a division of Cengage Learning. Gale and Gale Cengage are trademarks used herein under license. For complete copyright information on these eNotes please visit: http://www.enotes.com/good-man/copyright eNotes: …
  • Picture: BA380S MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS FIRST HALF: MACROECONOMICS

    BA380S MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS FIRST HALF: MACROECONOMICS

    File Size: 65.07 KB, Pages: 7, Views: 163,782 views

    BA A380S MANAGER RIAL ECO ONOMICS FI IRST HA ALF: MA ACROECOONOMICS FALL 2 2013 P Professor Andres Dona angelo O Office GSB 6.308 O Office Hour rs MW M 1:30pm - 3:00pm P Phone 23 32-6841 E E-Mail an ndres.donanngelo@mcco ombs.utexas.edu C Course Webb …

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *