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Electronics Lab Manual
                      Volume 2




                    K. A. NAVAS,     M Tech
                   Asst.Professor, ECE Dept.
               College of Engineering Trivandrum
                  Thiruvananthapuram-695016

                    kanavas@rediffmail.com




                 Rajath Publishers
 28/450-A, Club Road, Girinagar South, Kadavanthra, Kochi-682020
Electronics Lab Manual Volume 2
Fourth edition


Copyright c 2009 Rajath publishers and the author jointly

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                                                                                                 Contents

1 Linear/Analog IC Lab                                                                                                       11
  1.1 Familiarisation of op-amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   11
  1.2 Measurements of op-amp parameters . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   12
  1.3 Basic operational amplifier circuits . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   15
  1.4 Schmitt trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   25
  1.5 Astable multivibrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   28
  1.6 Monostable multivibrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   31
  1.7 Half wave rectifier using op-amp . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   33
  1.8 Full wave rectifier using op-amp . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   34
  1.9 Triangular wave generator . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   34
  1.10 Sawtooth wave generator using op-amp . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   37
  1.11 RC phase shift oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   38
  1.12 Wien bridge oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   39
  1.13 Wien bridge oscillator with amplitude stabilisation       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   40
  1.14 Window detector using op-amp . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   41
  1.15 Window detector using comparator IC 311 . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   42
  1.16 Peak detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   43
  1.17 Instrumentation amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   44
  1.18 Voltage limiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   45
  1.19 Clipping circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   47
  1.20 Clamping circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   50
  1.21 Filter using gyrator circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   52
  1.22 Three terminal voltage regulators . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   54
  1.23 Low voltage regulator using 723 IC . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   55
  1.24 High voltage regulator using 723 IC . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   58
  1.25 LVR with current foldback . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   61
  1.26 Counter ramp ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   63
  1.27 Study of ADC and DAC ICs . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   64
  1.28 Study of waveform generator IC 8038 . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   65

                                               5
6                                                              Electronics Lab Manual Volume 2


    1.29 Sawtooth generator using 555 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
    1.30 Examination questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

2   Analog and Digital Communication Engineering Lab                                                                             70
    2.1 Constant-k LPF and HPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    70
    2.2 m-derived LPF and HPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    74
    2.3 AM generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    77
    2.4 AM using multiplier IC AD534/AD633 . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    83
    2.5 AM detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    85
    2.6 Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    86
    2.7 IF tuned amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    88
    2.8 FM using 566 IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    91
    2.9 FM using 555 IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    94
    2.10 Study of 565 PLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    96
    2.11 FM generation and demodulation using 565 . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    99
    2.12 Frequency multiplier using 565 . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   100
    2.13 Study of CMOS PLL 4046 . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   102
    2.14 FM generation and demodulation using 4046 . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   104
    2.15 Frequency multiplier using 4046 . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   105
    2.16 PAM modulator and demodulator . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   106
    2.17 PWM using 555 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   109
    2.18 PWM using op-amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   110
    2.19 PPM using 555 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   112
    2.20 PCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   113
    2.21 Delta modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   115
    2.22 TDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   117
    2.23 BASK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   119
    2.24 BPSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   121
    2.25 BFSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   123
    2.26 Pre-emphasis de-emphasis . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   126
    2.27 Error checking and correcting codes . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   127
    2.28 Pseudo-random binary sequence generator . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   131
    2.29 First order low pass filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   133
    2.30 Second order low pass filter . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   135
    2.31 First order high pass filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   136
    2.32 Second order high pass filter . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   138
    2.33 Band pass filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   139
    2.34 Notch filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   141
    2.35 Universal active filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   142
    2.36 All pass filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   143
Electronics Lab Manual Volume 2                                                                                                         7


3 Microprocessor lab-8085                                                                                                             146
  3.1 Familiarisation with microprocessor kit .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   146
  3.2 Block transfer of data . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   148
  3.3 Overlapping block transfer of data . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   149
  3.4 Exchange of data between memory blocks          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   149
  3.5 Number of occurance . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   150
  3.6 Largest/smallest in an array . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   151
  3.7 Sorting in ascending/descending order . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   152
  3.8 BCD to binary conversion . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   154
  3.9 Binary to BCD conversion . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   155
  3.10 Hex to ASCII conversion . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   156
  3.11 ASCII to Hex conversion . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   157
  3.12 Binary addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   158
  3.13 Multi-byte addition . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   159
  3.14 BCD addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   160
  3.15 BCD subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   161
  3.16 Binary multiplication . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   162
  3.17 Binary division . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   164
  3.18 Square root of a number . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   165
  3.19 Factorial of a number . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   166
  3.20 Stepper motor interface . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   167
  3.21 Rolling display using 8279 . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   169
  3.22 Display character from keyboard . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   170
  3.23 Generation of waveforms . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   171
  3.24 Waveform generation using DAC . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   174
  3.25 ADC interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   175

4 Microprocessor lab-8086 (using MP kit)                                                                                              187
  4.1 Familiarisation of MP trainer kit . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   187
  4.2 Block move of data . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   189
  4.3 Addition of 16-bit binary numbers . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   190
  4.4 Addition of 32-bit binary numbers . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   191
  4.5 Subtraction of 16-bit binary numbers . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   192
  4.6 Subtraction of 32-bit binary numbers . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   193
  4.7 Sum of array elements . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   194
  4.8 Multibyte addition . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   195
  4.9 BCD addition/subtraction . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   196
  4.10 Multiplication of 16-bit binary numbers    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   197
  4.11 Division of binary numbers . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   198
  4.12 BCD to binary conversion . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   199
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