Edited by K.A. Green, T.M. Pollock, H. Harada,
T.E. Howson, R.C. Reed, J.J. Schirra, and S, Walston
TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2004
AERO-ENGINE BUSINESS AND MATERIAL TECHNOLOGIES IN JAPAN
Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.; 1 Shin-Nakaharacho, Isogo, Yokohama, Kanagawa 235-8501, Japan
Keywords: SC alloys, DS alloys, Forged alloys, Coatings, TiAl, MGC
Japanese research activities on jet engines began in the 1940s and Total
progressed as far as the test flight of the Ne-20 jet engine. All 80
work was discontinued, however, at the end of World War II. Af-
Net sales (M$)
ter seven years, production of jet engines was permitted to re- Defense
sume, as the major defense equipment mainly under licenses with 60
European and American manufacturers. Efforts were subsequently
continued to develop more advanced technologies, which were
then applied to design and manufacture the civil and military en- 40
gines. Full-scale development of superalloys and other engine Civil
materials began in Japan as a part of multiple national programs
aimed at developing new gas turbines. A number of original ma-
terials and process technologies have been studied. This paper
addresses the current and future material technologies in Japan.
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
It is generally predicted that the number of airline passengers (a)
throughout the world will grow at a rate of about 5% per year
until 2020. Demand is expected to grow rapidly especially in the
Asia-Pacific region. The aero-engine industry in Japan has grown Total
considerably in the last half century. Total production in fiscal
2001 was worth approximately $23 million, about twice the
amount sold in fiscal 1985. Japanese production accounts for sev-
Net sales (M$)
eral percent of the total world market; it is equivalent to about 15
one-ninth of the American production, and equal to the produc-
tion of Germany or Canada. Despite the lingering affects of the
war in Iraq and SARS, the long-term prospects for the aero-en- Production
gine industry are strong, making it an exception to the general
malaise that currently afflicts so many other Japanese industries.
The nature of the business has changed drastically in recent years, 5
as well. Although the field of defense retains its historical impor-
tance, it accounts for a decreasing share of total aero-engine sales, Repair
declining from 75% in the 1980s to about 60% today. In the past 0
several years, it has been predicted that civil engines will eventu- 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
ally outsell those for military use. The other major change has Year
been the expansion of related maintenance and service sectors,
and the increased provision of component production services to (b)
the major manufacturers in the US and Europe. Generally speak-
Figure 1. Net sales of Japanese air craft industry (a) defense and
ing, maintenance and service industries are increasingly being
localized, and production is becoming more specialized through- civil, (b)aero engine production and repair.
out the world. In the future, Japanese manufacturers expect to
develop their own next-generation engines, one for patrol planes All work was discontinued, however, at the end of World War II.
for defense, and one for small regional planes (50-seat class) for After seven years, production of jet engines was permitted to re-
the civil market. sume, as the major defense equipment mainly under licenses with
European and American manufacturers. Research and develop-
Jet Engine Development ment by the Technical Research and Development Institute of the
Japan Defense Agency also commenced at that time, leading to
Japanese research activities on jet engines began in the 1940s and the domestic manufacture of turbojet engines for intermediate jet
progressed as far as the test flight of the Ne-20 jet engine on a trainers such as the J-3 in the 1960s. Efforts were subsequently
prototype of the Nakajima Kikka (Orange Blossom) jet fighter. continued to develop more advanced technologies, which were
F110 :Research and development
Ne20 Figure 4. Schematic diagram of projected
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
next generation small engine.
Table I. Engine specification of projected next
Figure 2. Research, development and production of generation small engine.
jet engines in Japan.
Thrust 8000-12000 lb
then applied to design and manufacture the turbofan F-3 engines
Noize ICAO/Chapter4 -20dB cum
for intermediate trainers in the 1980s. Meanwhile, the Ministry
of International Trade and Industry (now the Ministry of Economy, ICAO/CAEP4 -50%
Trade and Industry) and the Science and Technology Agency be-
gan a project supporting for the research and development of en- Direct Operating Cost -15%
gines for civil use in the 1970s, leading to the development of the
first demonstration FJR710 engine. Many test flights had been ICAO:International Civil Aviation organization
completed on the Asuka, a jet capable of short- take-offs and land-
ing with the FJR710 engine. The FJR710 engine project was con-
tinued as the RJ500 engine development project, pursued jointly
by Japan and Great Britain; it then went on to become the V2500 and Industry in the 1990s included the CF34-8 engine (designed
engine project implemented by a five-country consortium. Japan for use with regional jets with seating capacities of 70 to 100 pas-
participated in the planning of the latter as a national project. The sengers) and the CF34-10 engine. These engines entered com-
V2500 was subsequently selected as the engine for the Airbus mercial service in 2001, with Japan accounting for a high 30% of
A320 mid-size passenger jet. To date, more than 5,000 units have the total. Clearly, Japan has gained international recognitions as a
been ordered, with Japanese Aero Engines Corporation (JAEC) collaborative partner or joint projects RSP (risk revenue sharing
accounting for approximately 23% of the program. Programs that partner) of civil engines developments and business, which are
received financial assistance from the Ministry of Economy, Trade increasingly centering on midsize and small engines.
Figure 3. Schematic diagram of HYPR engine and new materials.
Temperature for 1000h creep life at 137MPa (C)
J3 F3 XF5 XF7
JDA JDA JDA JDA 1100
VTOL FJR710 HYPR ESPR
NAL NAL MITI MITI/METI 1000
Moonlight Project WE-NET 900
MITI MITI CC
Advanced Alloys with SC
Controlled Crystalline Structure HTM21
MITI NRIM/NIMS 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Figure 6. Improvement in temperature capability of Ni-
Year base superalloys.
JDA:Japan Defense Agency
NAL:National Aerospace Laboratory
MITI:Ministry of International Trade and Industry
METI:Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry was implemented by the New Energy and Industrial Technology
NIMS:National Institute of Materials Science
NRIM:National Research Institute for Metals
Development Organization (NEDO) over a ten-year period be-
ginning in 1989, followed by the ESPR (Research and Develop-
Figure 5. Engines and Material development programs ment of Environmentally Compatible Propulsion System for Next-
in Japan. Generation Supersonic Transport Project), a five-year program,
initiated in 1999. Both research programs focus on engines for
use on supersonic aircrafts and involve the collection of data con-
The technical development of engines for next-generation super- cerning fundamental supersonic engine technologies, including
sonic aircrafts is also moving ahead quickly with governmental aerodynamics, combustion, cooling, structure and strength, high-
programs. The XF5 (a demonstrator engine, a low bypass ratio temperature materials, system control, fuel efficiency, noise sup-
turbofan with afterburners) and the XF7 (a high bypass ratio tur- pression, and the reduction of NOx emissions. Japan has had
bofan engine) were developed entirely by Japanese engineers. The little experiences on high-pressure turbines, the highest tempera-
HYPR (Super/Hyper-Sonic Transport Propulsion System) program ture component in international RSP civil engine programs. How-
Table II. Chemical composition of Ni-base superalloys (wt%) 
Alloy Co Cr Mo W Al Ti Nb Ta Hf Re C B Zr Ru Y Ni
Inconel738 8.5 16 1.7 2.6 3.4 3.4 - 1.7 - - .17 .01 0.1 - - bal.
Rene'80 9.5 14 4.0 4.0 3.0 5.0 - - - - .17 .015 .03 - - bal.
MarM247 10 8.5 0.7 10 5.6 1 - 3 - - .16 .015 .04 - - bal.
TM-321 8.2 8.1 - 12.6 5 0.8 - 4.7 - - .11 .01 .05 - - bal.
CM247LC 9 8 0.5 10 5.6 0.7 - 3.2 1.4 - .07 .015 .01 - - bal.
PWA1426 12 6.5 1.7 6.5 6 - - 4 1.5 3 .1 .015 .03 - - bal.
MGA1400 10 14 1.5 4 4 3 - 5 - - .08 ? .03 - - bal.
TMD-107 6 3 3 6 6 - - 6 0.1 5 .07 .015 - 2 - bal.
CMSX-2 4.6 8 0.6 8 5.6 1 - 9 - - - - - - - bal.
Rene'N4 8 9 2 6 3.7 4.2 0.5 4 - - - - - - - bal.
PWA1480 5 10 - 4 5 1.5 - 12 - - - - - - - bal.
CMSX-4 9 6.5 0.6 6 5.6 1 - 6.5 0.1 3 - - - - - bal.
Rene'N5 8 7 2 5 6.2 - - 7 0.2 3 - - - - - bal.
SC PWA1484 10 5 2 6 5.6 - - 9 - 3 - - - - - bal.
YH61 1 7.1 0.8 8.8 5.1 - 0.8 8.9 0.25 1.4 .07 .02 - - - bal.
CMSX-10 3 2 0.4 5 5.7 0.2 0.1 8 0.03 6 - - - - - bal.
Rene'N6 12.5 4.2 1.4 6 5.75 - - 7.2 0.15 5.4 .05 .004 - - .01 bal.
TMS-138 5.8 2.8 2.9 6.1 5.8 - - 5.6 0.05 5.1 - - - 1.9 - bal.
TMS-162 5.8 2.9 3.9 5.8 5.8 - - 5.6 0.09 4.9 - - - 6.0 - bal.
Figure 7. Stable dislocation network on the rafted . and . ' Figure 8. External appearance of turbine rotor made of TiAl.
phasesin a fourth generation SC superalloy TMS-138.
ever, we are confident that the elemental technologies acquired crystal alloy CMSX-4. Recently, fourth-generation DS alloys have
through the past and current research and development programs, also been developed by adding elements to fourth-generation
especially heat-resistant materials, cooling technologies, and re- single-crystal alloys that strengthen grain boundaries. These re-
lated processing technologies, make significant contributions for search achievements were achieved through international coop-
our next engine development like the one for the regional jets. eration and coordination among industry, government and
academia under the leadership of the National Institute for Mate-
Research and Development of Materials in Japan rials Science (NIMS).
Full-scale development of superalloys and other materials began
in Japan as part of multiple national programs aimed at develop- Utilizing these basic technologies, private companies are actively
ing gas turbines, including the Moonlight Project (1979-1988, developing practical materials for use in gas turbines. Hitachi Ltd.,
dedicated to researching and developing a high-efficiency gas for example, has independently developed a single-crystal alloy
turbine) and the WE-NET (World Energy Network) Program called YH61 , which features a high tolerance for grains and
(1993-1998). The first project dedicated especially to materials low-angle grain boundaries, as well as excellent castability and
development was the Advanced Alloys with Controlled Crystal- high-temperature strength. Hitachi is also collaborating with The
line Structure Project (1981-1988), through which first-genera- Kansai Electric Power Company and Nagoya University to de-
tion single-crystal alloys were developed that did not contain rhe- velop third-generation single-crystal alloys , which have prom-
nium, along with PM materials and ODS alloys. Most recently, ising practical applications.
the High Temperature Materials 21 Project (HTM21 Project), con-
ducted by the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Similarly, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. and Mitsubishi Ma-
has developed fourth-generation single-crystal alloys and DS al- terials Corporation have independently developed the DS alloys
loys. Specifically, ruthenium was added to third-generation single- MGA1400 and MGA2400. Designed for use in gas turbines,
crystal alloys to boost structural stability, resulting in the devel- these alloys contain relatively large amounts of chromium, which
opment of TMS-138, TMS-162 and other alloys that can be con- provides high resistance to corrosion at high temperatures.
sidered fourth-generation materials. Among the alloys that have MGA1400 has a creep rupture temperature that is about 50C
been developed were third-generation single-crystal alloys that, higher than that of conventional cast materials such as Inconel
due to the addition of rhenium as a strengthening element, dis- 738LC, with a thermal fatigue strength approximately 10 times
played instability on the microstructural level at high tempera- higher.
tures, with an attendant reduction in service life. To improve struc-
tural stability at high temperatures, elements such as ruthenium Alloys being developed are subjected to validation tests through
and iridium have been added. Meanwhile, attempts are being made jet engine development projects such as the HYPR and ESPR
to design alloys by enhancing the formation of a raft structure projects mentioned above. Plans have been made to test TMS-
during deformation and preventing dislocation climbing by opti- 138 and other alloys developed under the above programs on ac-
mizing the lattice misfit toward negative (a. 'Download Link:
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