Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb)

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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb)
Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

Short Answer




                                                Figure 1.1

Using Figure 1.1, identify the following:
       1) Label A points to the __________ cavity.
          Answer: cranial
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 20

       2) Label B points to the __________ cavity.
          Answer: spinal
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 20

       3) Label C points to the __________ cavity.
          Answer: thoracic
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 20

       4) Label D points to the __________.
          Answer: diaphragm
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 20

       5) Label E points to the __________ cavity.
          Answer: abdominal
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 20

       6) Label F points to the __________ cavity.
          Answer: pelvic
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 20


                                                     1
Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:
          7) Groups of cells that have a common function are termed __________.
             Answer: tissues
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 4

       8) The larynx is an organ of the __________ system.
          Answer: respiratory
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 7

       9) The system that functions in the storage of minerals, such as calcium, is called the
          __________ system.
          Answer: skeletal
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 4

      10) The breakdown of ingested foods into simple molecules that can then be absorbed into the
          bloodstream is termed __________.
          Answer: digestion
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 11

      11) __________ refers to all of the chemical reactions in the body.
          Answer: Metabolism
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 11

      12) The ability to sense changes and react to them is termed __________ or __________.
          Answer: irritability; responsiveness
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 11

      13) The component of a control system that provides the means for the control center's response
          (output) is called the __________.
          Answer: effector
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 12-13

      14) The study of the body's small structures using a microscope is called __________.
          Answer: microscopic anatomy
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 2

      15) A control mechanism that responds to a stimulus by decreasing its intensity is called a
          __________ mechanism.
          Answer: negative feedback
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 13

      16) The body's ability to maintain stable internal conditions is referred to as __________.
          Answer: homeostasis
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 12

      17) The navel is __________ to the spine.
          Answer: ventral or anterior
          Diff: 2    Page Ref: 18

      18) The armpit area is called the __________ region.
          Answer: axillary
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 16-17
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19) A cut that is made along the midline is called a __________ section.
    Answer: midsagittal or median
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 17

20) The central region of the thoracic cavity containing the heart is called the __________.
    Answer: mediastinum
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 20

21) The right and left iliac (inguinal) regions are lateral to the __________ region.
    Answer: hypogastric
   Diff: 2     Page Ref: 22

22) The cranial and spinal cavities are subdivisions of the __________ cavity.
    Answer: dorsal
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 20

23) The __________ system is composed of kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra.
    Answer: urinary or excretory
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 7

24) Blood is categorized as a __________ because it is compared of similar cells with a common
    function.
    Answer: tissue
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 4

25) Ventral is a directional term synonymous with __________ in humans.
    Answer: anterior
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 18

26) The three medial regions of the abdominopelvic cavity are __________, __________, and
    __________.
    Answer: epigastric region, umbilical region, hypogastric region
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 21

27) The function of the __________ system is to control body activities via hormones.
    Answer: endocrine
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 5; 7

28) __________ is the process of breaking down ingested food in preparation for absorption.
    Answer: Digestion
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 11

29) Blood clotting and the birth of a baby are examples of the __________ feedback mechanism.
    Answer: positive
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 13

30) The patellar region is __________ to the popliteal region.
    Answer: ventral or anterior
   Diff: 1     Page Ref: 16




                                                3
      31) The abdominal cavity has __________ quadrants and __________ regions.
          Answer: 4; 9
          Diff: 2    Page Ref: 21

      32) The thoracic cavity is __________ to the abdominopelvic cavity.
          Answer: superior
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 20

      33) The epigastric region is __________ to the right hypochondriac region of the abdominopelvic
          cavity.
          Answer: medial
          Diff: 2    Page Ref: 21




                                               Figure 1.2

Using Figure 1.2, identify the following:
      34) Label A points to the __________ region.
          Answer: epigastric
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 21

      35) Label B points to the __________ region.
          Answer: right hypochondriac
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 21

      36) Label C points to the __________ region.
          Answer: umbilical
          Diff: 1    Page Ref: 21


                                                     4
     37) Label D points to the __________ region.
         Answer: right lumbar
        Diff: 1     Page Ref: 21

     38) Label E points to the __________ region.
         Answer: hypogastric
        Diff: 1     Page Ref: 21

     39) Label F points to the __________ region.
         Answer: right iliac (inguinal)
        Diff: 1     Page Ref: 21


Multiple Choice
      1) The study of the function of the body and body parts is called:
           A) anatomy
           B) physiology
           C) homeostasis
           D) negative feedback
           E) irritability
         Answer: B
        Diff: 1     Page Ref: 2

      2) Which of the following activities does not represent an anatomical study:
          A) making a section through the heart to observe its interior
           B) examining the surface of a bone
          C) viewing muscle tissue through a microscope
          D) studying how the nerves conduct electrical impulses
           E) observing the parts of a reproducing cell
         Answer: D
        Diff: 2     Page Ref: 2

      3) Which of the following is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex, in the
         levels of structural organization of the human body:
           A) chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal
               level
            B) chemical level, tissue level, cellular level, organ system level, organ level, organismal
               level
            C) cellular level, chemical level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal
               level
           D) cellular level, tissue level, chemical level, organ level, organ system level, organismal
               level
            E) cellular level, chemical level, tissue level, organ system level, organismal level, organ
               level
         Answer: A
        Diff: 3     Page Ref: 3-4




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