Site Environmental Sustainability Achievements at Avago

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                               Site Environmental Sustainability Achievements
                                   at Avago Technologies, Fort Collins, CO

                                                           Steve Wolley

                                   Avago Technologies, Fort Collins, Workplace Services Manager

                                                                        Avago also uses the EHSMS (ISO 14000) management
    ABSTRACT                                                       system to track significant aspects and associated resulting
    Despite the intense use of chemicals, energy, and water        projects or process improvements.             This system of
    associated with wafer manufacturing and the exacting           organization is essential to placing some rigor to the many
    requirements for control, fabs can reduce inefficiencies and   reporting requirements manufacturers have and the
    reduce their impact on the environment. This paper explores    improvements that can be made to either meet or exceed
    some of the ways this can be accomplished.                     regulations as determined by local jurisdictions. Avago
                                                                   strives to ensure we meet the basics of regulatory reporting
    INTRODUCTION                                                   through process control and then goes beyond this through
         Avago Technologies Ft Collins strives to find ways to     project identification to improve our sustainability each year.
    lower its impact on the environment as a result of fab              As an example; our permit allows a certain amount of
    operations. It is important to behave responsibly not only     Arsenic to be released into our waste water stream (in the
    with respect to local impacts on our community but also to     ppb levels) but our goal is to release zero. We have
    preserve the environment in general whenever possible.         identified and implemented processes that help us achieve
    Avago employees live in the community of Fort Collins and      this goal. In the matter of release of hazardous byproducts,
    want to be good stewards of the local environment. This        zero is a good number regardless of legal limits.
    responsibility is managed by the Work Place Services Group          In addition to the utilization of the EHSMS system
    (WPS) with the support of Manufacturing Management.            Avago created an Environmental Sustainability Report based
         Those who embark on this path must obtain that support    on the widely accepted GRI (Global Reporting Initiative)
    because all projects to improve sustainability require two     index. The advantages of creating this report are as follows.
    valuable resources - time and money. Management support        First, it forces the consolidation of all efforts into one place
    and focus also provides motivation for individual              in order to create the report. Second, it forces a look from
    contributors by the assignment and acknowledgement of          outside through the eyes of NGO's and environmentally-
    projects or process improvements and the associated results.   minded individuals to ensure that you have not gotten stuck
    Given time, individuals see the merit in putting forward       in an activity trap but can show real results and real
    ideas of their own which further promotes progress and can     improvement. Use of the GRI forces a rigor that otherwise
    result in the creation of a list of projects that can be       would not be created. Creating this report each year forces a
    prioritized and completed as time and money become             look backwards to assess effectiveness.
                                                                   Prioritization of projects
    Management of Programs                                              Avago's method of prioritization has been to look at
         Avago facilitates the development of ideas and manages    those projects that have the greatest return on financial
    progress through our Pollution Prevention Team (P2) which      investment and fit with in the budget, believing that
    is sponsored by the Manufacturing Manager and Chaired by       impacting both budgets and the environment are the most
    the WPS manager and meets monthly. Through this team           efficient and usually end up saving the most resources. This
    assignments are made to design solutions and/or to             method of prioritization has resulted in a focus on projects in
    implement ideas.                                               the following order:
                                                                             x Recycling of solvents (that would otherwise
       Focus has been separated into four major areas:                           have become hazardous waste)
            Reduction of hazardous waste                                     x Energy efficiency or reduction of wasteful
            Reduction of energy consumption                                      consumption
            Reduction of water consumption                                   x Water efficiency
            Reduction of solid waste heading to our landfill                 x Reduction of solid waste
                                                                             x Renewable energy

   CS MANTECH Conference, May 17th-20th, 2010, Portland, Oregon, USA
     To date, reductions in wasteful practices have been far       The cost of these systems is approximately $200K each and
more cost effective (highest reduction in use of natural           there are 4 systems.
resources) than has the more popular renewable energy
solutions.                                                         Fig. 2 Solvent Waste Shipped vs. re-used 2003 to 2009 in
     In contrast, one could look at data showing the largest       pounds per year
pareto items and attempt to beat down that category or the                             1,200,000
top few in the hopes this would provide the biggest gains.
Fig. 1 would suggest that attacking fab tools would be the                             1,000,000

highest priority. This category proves to be much broader

                                                                     Pounds per Year
and much more complex as well as being somewhat "hands
off" for fear that one might spoil the recipe by chang ing
processing. Despite this, by breaking this category down
Avago has identified load lock pumps as an item within this                             400,000
category that can be attacked by replacement of older pumps
with new more efficient models. This will be a long slow                                200,000
change over ten years which can run on its own once set up
as a standard.                                                                                0
                                                                                              Jan-00 Jan-01 Jan-02 Jan-03 Jan-04 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07 Jan-08 Jan-09

                                                                                         EBR_Reuse/Year             Acetone_Reuse/Year          NMP_Reuse/Year
Fig. 1 Contribution to total electric consumption in fab                                 IPA_Recycle/Year           Waste/Year                  Waste+Reuse/Year
facilities by system.
              Compressed      Process       Recirculating               Spent sulfuric acid can be used as a source chemical in
                  air       cooling water     air fans             waste water treatment systems in order to avoid buying
                 2.6%           1.7%          11.0%                virgin chemical.
                                                  Make up air
                                                                        Vendors exist that will extract metals like Gallium,
Nitrogen Plant
     7.3%                                            fans          Copper, and Gold from waste streams, thus keeping this
     Exhaust air                                    2.9%           material from being incinerated or land filled. Reclaimed
                                                                   metals can be returned for reuse indirectly as those materials
                                                24.9%              make it back to high purity metal suppliers.
                                                                        As a result of these efforts Avago now uses about 75%
            Process Tools                                          recycled solvents in our process instead of buying new
               40.7%                        Ultra Pure
                                                                   material that we must then dispose of. The goal is to get to
                                               4.9%                95% over the next few years.

                                                                   Reduction of energy consumption
     This is not to say that everything Avago does has to               This focus area is concerned with usage of electricity
have an ROI. Most solid waste recycling and composting             and natural gas. Avago looks for opportunities to increase
for instance does not have any appreciable return yet we           efficiencies of operation, shut off systems, and take
continually strive to increase ways to not only reduce the         advantage of energy already generated for secondary uses.
amount we use but look for opportunities for reuse and only        Through this emphasis Avago has been able to identify
use recycling as a last resort. The overused adage that one        sustained year over year reductions in consumption.
man's waste is another man's gold turns out to be true.            Through a long slow road of electrical savings, multiple
     A brief overview of our focus by area follows.                projects have been able to reduce electrical consumption by
                                                                   2% per year for the last 5 years (Fig. 3). Reductions in
Reduction of Hazardous Waste:                                      natural gas consumption by 20% over the last 3 years have
     Avago continually strives to increase both the types and      also been achieved through multiple projects (Fig. 4).
the amount of chemicals / byproducts recycled. To date
solvent recycle systems constructed include: EBR, NMP,             Reduction of water consumption
and Acetone.                                                           This focus area is concerned with usage of domestic and
     IPA recycle has proven to be complicated and as a final       irrigation water. We look for opportunities to lower water
clean, undesirable. Instead, used IPA is collected and sold to     usage via fixture replacements or by seeking opportunities
a second source whose purity requirements are not as               to reuse water before sending it back to our municipal
stringent as those of the IC industry. Fig. 2 below shows the      supplier. Over the last 4 years we have been able to reduce
amount of each of the solvents we recycle and the progress         water consumption by 20%. Examples of these projects are
made in recycling each of them.                                    listed in Fig. 5 below.
    At this point Avago is saving approximately $1.7M per
year in solvent purchases as a result of this recycle effort.

                                                   CS MANTECH Conference, May 17th-20th, 2010, Portland, Oregon, USA
Fig. 3 Electric consumption Jan 2005 to Dec 2009 in KWh              Reduction of the amount of waste heading to our landfill
per month                                                                 This is a broad area that encompasses many activities
                                                                     and is best described by the individual solutions we have
                                                                     listed below. Our current diversion rate is 77% and rising
            6,500,000                                                due to the diligence of our employee Green Team and
                                                                     support from our facilities and procurement teams.

                                                                     Solid Waste
                                                                         1. Started getting actual weights on trash dumpsters to
            5,000,000                                                       more accurately calculate our diversion rate.
                                                                         2. Implemented plastic bag recycling.
            4,500,000                                                    3. Composted 12,131 pounds of food waste and
                                                                            restroom paper towels.
                                                                         4. Replaced all battery operated paper towel
                         1    6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56
                                                                            dispensers (~80) with manual dispensers.
                                    Months since start of projects
                                                                     Other Efforts
                                                                        1. Created our first Environmental Sustainability
                                                                            Report. Report focuses exclusively on Fort Collins
Fig. 4 Natural Gas consumption Jan 2007 to Dec 2009 in
                                                                            Fab facility and reports on activities in 2006 and
DTh per month
                                                                            2007. Each year from here forward we will add
                                   Natural Gas in Dth                       each year's results to the report to show our long
                                                                            term progress.
                                                                        2. Replaced 88 sq. ft. of blinds with energy efficient
            30,000                                                          shades. R-Value 7.86 SHGC rating - 1.5. UV
            25,000                                                          blockage 99%

                                                                         Following is a brief listing several projects completed
            15,000                                                   over the last few years that show capital outlay and annual
            10,000                                                   savings. Savings were calculated with that year 's energy
                                                                     costs. Given the rising cost of energy, these projects will
                                                                     look more and more attractive in the coming years.
                     1   4     7     10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37   Feed CDA from Building 4 (B4) to Building 2 (B2)
                                   Months since start of projects          Combined two separate Compressed Dry Air
                                                                            (CDA) systems into one. B4 has two 350 HP
                                                                            compressors and B2 has three 150 HP compressors
                                                                           Installed 700' of 4" pipe through a connecting
Fig. 5 Water consumption Sept. 2003 to Dec 2009 in                          tunnel to connect the systems together
gallons per month
                                                                           B2 system is still functional to provide safe
            26,000,000                                                      supplies (N+1) but is removed from full time
                                                                            service due to lower efficiency than the B4
                                                                            compressor rack.
            22,000,000                                                     Project utilized the Platte River Power Authority
            20,000,000                                                      (PRPA) Energy Efficiency Program (EEP) to

            18,000,000                                                      supplement the installation cost and improve the
                                                                           Project Cost $46K and saves 471,000 KWH or
            14,000,000                                                      $20K annually
            10,000,000                                               Feed Process Vacuum from B4 to Buildings 2 and 1
                                                                           Combined three separate process vacuum systems
                             1 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73
                                                                            into one. B4 has two units that were designed to
                                    Months since start of projects          handle more load than we ended up having. B2 had
                                                                            4 units and B1 had 3 units using 55 KW peak load.

CS MANTECH Conference, May 17th-20th, 2010, Portland, Oregon, USA
       Ran 1400' of pipe through a connecting tunnel into             heat exchanger, de-aerator and pump to provide
        B2 and then on into B1                                         base load heating
       Project utilized the PRPA EEP to supplement the               Project cost is $220K
        installation cost and improve the ROI.                        Annual savings $21K in electricity due to changes
       Project Cost $37K and saves 481,000 KWH or                     in pumping strategy and $12K per year in Nat. Gas.
        $20K annually                                                  It also saves $8K per year in maintenance and
                                                                       reduces repair costs.
B2 Free Cooling Process Cooling Water Loop 1
       Utilized existing cooling tower for off season free    B4 Base Load Chiller
        cooling.                                                      Building 4 utilizes two chiller systems to provide
       Install new 300 ton heat exchanger and sand filter,            chilled water and glycol chilled water
        and pump header to connect in free cooling                    Both systems utilize chillers that are oversized for
       PRPA EEP funded to improve ROI. (approx $42K)                  the base load
       Project cost $175K and saves 750,000 KWH or                   Move 500 ton chiller from glycol system to chilled
        $32K annually                                                  water system to support CHW base load
                                                                      Purchase new 350 ton chiller and pump to support
B4 Free Cooling                                                        glycol system base load
       Utilized existing cooling tower for off season free           Project cost $270K, will save 680,000 KWH or
        cooling.                                                       saves $40K total including $4K in maintenance.
       Installed new 600 ton heat exchanger, sand filter              (6+yr ROI !)
        and pump.                                                     Costs have gone up extensively since this was
       PRPA EEP funded to improve ROI. (approx $54K)                  defined and approved. Piping came in at 2X
       Project Cost $165K and saves 1,070,000 KWH or                  expected despite several discussion on how to
        $46K annually                                                  reduce scope. Chiller and pump also came in high.
                                                                      PRPA EEP funded to improve ROI. (approx $44K)
B1 Free Cooling
       Utilized existing cooling tower for off season free    B2 Heating Plant Reconfiguration
        cooling                                                      Project reduced operational costs for natural gas
       Install new 600 ton heat exchanger and sand filter            and electrical energy usage and electrical peak
       PRPA EEP funded to improve ROI. (approx $48K)                 demand. It does this by improving the efficiency of
       Project cost $150K and saves 700,000 KWH or                   the B2 heating plant during minimum load
        $29.4K annually                                               conditions, which occurs for more than 4200
                                                                      hours/year. The yearly energy savings is about
B2 Free Heating                                                       7,220 dekatherms of natural gas, and about 175,000
       Utilize existing chiller reject heat to heat up our           KWHs per year.            This represents about
        incoming water to 70 deg before cleaning it up and            $81,000/year. There will also be a reduction of
        using it in the fab as Ultra Pure Water. Incoming             maintenance costs by about $3,100/year.
        water varies between 38 and 50 deg F.                        Project cost was $230K
       Install new heat exchanger and pipe                          We now operate one load-matched condensing
       Project cost $14K and saves 32,850 MMBTU or                   boiler where two over-sized boilers were needed
        $350K annually. This represents almost 2,000                  (one steam and one hydronic), thereby increasing
        Tons of CO2e per year.                                        overall system efficiency by about 10% during the
                                                                      warmest 3200 hours of operation.
B4 Heating water boiler right size                                   This also reduced load on the campus heating loop
      Provide matched boiler capacity to meet the base               due to reduced pipe losses due to reduced loop
       load and average demands without using the two                 temperature.
       800 boiler-horsepower boilers to meet N+1. The
       large boilers were experiencing failures due to very    Water Projects
       frequent on off cycles. Base load is less than 50             Convert B4 Vertex scrubbers to acid waste water,
       boiler-horsepower and average is about 140                     saving 10GPM or 5M GPY and saving 19.3K per
      Provide controls to switch over and only utilize               year.
       large boilers in the coldest conditions when full 800         Acid waste water to B4 scrubber makes up saving
       hp are needed.                                                 12 GPM or 6.3M GPY and saving $34.7K per yr.
      Utilize 200 hp steam boilers to create a small steam          Acid waste water to B4 scrubber make up saving 18
       loop to heat water. Installed a new steam to water             GPM or 9.5M GPY and saving $34.3K per year

                                            CS MANTECH Conference, May 17th-20th, 2010, Portland, Oregon, USA
        RO reject to RO feed water tank saving 60 GPM or         well. Typically energy and water saving project results can
         31.5M GPY and saving $114K per yr.                       be listed in terms of having saved energy equivalent to the
        Reprogram B4 tower water sand filter to pressure         annual usage of dozens of average homes and it is not hard
         not time, saving 3 GPM or 1.6M GPY and saving            to rack up numbers that equal hundreds of homes ' worth of
         $1.4K per yr.                                            savings.
                                                                       It is unfortunate that many fabs limit their ROI tolerance
Miscellaneous Projects                                            for energy saving to 1 year or less payback. While it is
       Use chiller reject heat to preheat incoming water         likely that many projects can be found that fall into this
        before sending through RO units. Installed a heat         constraint, it does prevent larger projects from being
        exchanger and intercepted both the chiller tower          developed and thus larger savings from being realized.
        water line and the incoming industrial water line.             With the proper focus on sustainability and long term
        Project cost only $14K to complete because we             perseverance fabrication facilities can expect to realize 10%
        owned the exchanger and saves us $350K per year           to 20% reductions in their impact on the environment and an
        in natural gas costs.                                     equal reduction in the cost of their energy costs within a
       Replaced most of our urinals and water closets with       decade.
        the lowest flow units we could find that fit our
        existing piping racks. Cost was $32K for 123              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
        fixtures and saves around $8K per year depending             The author would like to thank Martin Brophy for help
        on site occupancy.                                        with editing and content suggestions.
       Placed timers and motion sensors in a host of
        support locations through out our facility                ACRONYMS
        (basements, mezzanines, utility rooms, etc) where           CRAC  Computer room air conditioner
        people traffic is limited. Cost was $12.5K and              EBR  Ethyl Lactate
        saves about $28K per year.                                  DTh- Decatherm - heat equivalent to 100,000 BTU
       Turned off a CRAC unit in a computer room and               N+1  Number of units required to service need plus one
        instead use house air. This allows utilization of the       extra in case of failure or maintenance
        more efficient chiller and takes advantage of winter        NGO  Non-governmental organization
        time free cooling discussed above. Cost was $3K             NMP  N-Methylpyrrolidone
        and savings is estimated at about $4K.                      ROI  Return on investment
                                                                    SHGC - Solar heat gain coefficient
    In addition we have upgraded lighting, placed variable          UV  Ultraviolet (light)
frequency drives (VFD's) on fans and subsequently turned            VFD  Variable Frequency Drive
them down to match actual need, upgraded fan seals on
transfer fans, eliminated gas bottle coolers and instead used
house chiller water, widened temperature objectives in
support areas and even in office areas, and created winter set
points and summer set points. All these projects save energy
and have ROI's that are less than 3 years. Most projects
have less than one year and some are virtually free if one has
a building automation system.

     Despite the very exacting controls fabrication facilities
must operate under in order to make good die, there are
many opportunities available to reduce the footprint. Senior
management directives in this area are essential to making
real progress despite the fact that many opportunities exist in
most facilities.    The concepts are not difficult and the
applications can be very easy to implement. The most
difficult step seems to be in making the leap from viewing
sustainability as a bothersome diversion that requires lip
service so it can be included in marketing brochures to an
acknowledgement that being sustainable is good for the
bottom line as well as for the environment. Fabs that engage
in this activity will improve their bottom line. Fabs that
engage in this can have huge impacts on their community as

CS MANTECH Conference, May 17th-20th, 2010, Portland, Oregon, USA
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