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1. b The sociological perspective is an approach to understanding human behavior by
    placing it within its broader social context. (4)
2 . d Sociologists consider occupation, income, education, gender, age, and race as
    dimensions of social location.(4)
3. d All three statements reflect ways in which the social sciences are like the natural
    sciences. Both attempt to study and understand their subjects objectively; both attempt
    to undercover the relationships that create order in their respective worlds through
    controlled observation; and both are divided into many specialized fields. (5-7)
4. c Generalization is one of the goals of scientific inquiry. It involves going beyond
    individual cases by making statements that apply to broader groups or situations. (7)
5. b The Industrial Revolution, imperialism, and the development of the scientific method
    all contributed to the development of sociology. The fourth influence was the political
    revolutions in America and France -- there was no political revolution in Britain at that
    time. (8-9)
6. d Positivism is the application of the scientific approach to the social world. (9)
7. d Of the four statements, the one that best reflects Herbert Spencer's views on charity
    is "The poor are the weakest members of society and if society intervenes to help
    them, it is interrupting the natural process of social evolution." While many
    contemporaries of Spencer's were appalled by his views, the wealthy industrialists found
    them attractive. (10)
8. b The proletariat is the large group of workers who are exploited by the small group of
    capitalists who own the means of production, according to Karl Marx. (11)
9. a Durkheim believed that social factors, patterns of behavior that characterize a social
    group, explain many types of behavior, including suicide rates. (12)
10. b In his research on suicide rates, Durkheim found that individuals' integration into
    their social groups influences the overall patterns of suicide between groups. He called
    this concept social integration. (12)
11. a In response to the development of the new, impersonal industrial society, Durkheim
    suggested that new social groups be created to stand between the state and the family.
    He believed this would address the condition of anomie. (12)
12. c Max Weber's research on the rise of capitalism identified religious beliefs as the key.
13. d All are correct. Replication helps researchers overcome distortions that values can
    cause, results can be compared when a study is repeated, and replication involves the
    repetition of a study by other researchers. (14)
14. c Social facts and Verstehen go hand-in-hand. Social facts are patterns of behavior that
    characterize a social group. By applying Verstehen, your understanding of what it means
    to be human and to face various situations in life, you gain an understanding of people's
    behavior. (15)
15. b In the nineteenth century, it was unlikely that women would study sociology because
    gender roles were rigidly defined; women were supposed to devote themselves to the four
    K's -- Kirche, Kchen, Kinder, und Kleider (church, cooking, children, and clothes).
16. b The statement that, "Unlike the situation in Europe, many North American women
    found that there were few barriers and they were able to train in sociology and receive
    faculty appointments," is incorrect. In the early years of sociology, the situation of
    women in North America was similar to that of European women -- they were largely


      excluded and their work ignored. As a result, many turned to social activism, especially
      working with the poor and immigrant groups. Many male sociologists who worked as
      professors denied female sociologists the title of sociologist, preferring to call them
      social workers. (17)
17.   c W. E. B. Du Bois was an African-American sociologist who wrote extensively on race
      relations. In both his personal and professional life, he experienced prejudice and
      discrimination. His commitment to racial equality led him to establish the NAACP. (19-
18.   c Sociologists who conduct research for government commissions or agencies
      investigating social problems are practicing applied sociology. (21)
19.   b Symbolic interactionism is the theoretical perspective that views society as composed
      of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and
      communicate with one another. (23)
20.   c In explaining the high U.S. divorce rate, the symbolic interaction perspective would
      focus on explanations such as emotional satisfaction, the meaning of children, and the
      meaning of parenthood. (23-25)
21.   d According to Robert Merton, an unintended consequence that can hurt a system's
      equilibrium is a latent dysfunction. (26)
22.   d Industrialization and urbanization have undermined the traditional purposes of the
      family, according to theorists using functional analysis. (29)
23.   a Karl Marx first asserted that conflict is inherent in all relations that have authority.
24.   c Feminists often focus their research on the oppression of women by men. (29)
25.   b Conflict theorists might explain the high rate of divorce by looking at societies basic
      inequalities between males and females. (29)
26.   d Since each theoretical perspective provides a different, often sharply contrasting
      picture of our world, no theory or level of analysis encompasses all of reality. By putting
      the contributions of each perspective and level of analysis together, we gain a more
      comprehensive picture of social life. (30-31)
27.   c The first phase of sociology in the United States stretched from the founding of the
      first departments of sociology in the last decade of the nineteenth century into the
      1940s. This phase was characterized by an interest in using sociological knowledge t o
      improve social life and change society. (31)
28.   a The purpose of pure or basic sociological research is to make discoveries about life in
      human groups, not to make changes in those groups. On the other hand, applied and
      clinical sociology are more involved in suggesting or bringing about social change. (31)
29.   c In recent years, more sociologists have sought ways in which to apply their research
      findings to solving social problems. This represents a return to applied sociology. (31)
30.   d The author of your text suggests that globalization , the breaking down of national
      boundaries because of communication, trade and travel, is very likely going to transform
      sociology in the United States. As global issues intrude more into U.S. society,
      sociologists will have to broaden the scope and focus of their research. (32)

1. True. (4)
2. True. (4)
3. True. (6)
4. True. (6)
5. False. Sociologists focus on external influences (people's experiences) instead of internal
   mechanisms, such as instincts. (7)
6. False. Sociology has many similarities to the other social sciences. What distinguishes
   sociology from other disciplines is that sociologists do not focus on single social
   institutions, they study industrialized societies, and they stress factors external to the
   individual. (8)

                                                      CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER ANSWER KEY

7.    True. (8)
8.    True. (10)
9.    True. (11)
10.   True. (12)
11.   False. Weber agreed with much of what Marx wrote, but he strongly disagreed that
      economics is the central force in social change. Weber saw religion as playing that role.
12.   True. (14)
13.   True. (15)
14.   False. Harriet Martineau's ground-breaking work on social life in Great Britain and the
      United States was largely ignored; she is remembered for her translations of Auguste
      Comte's work. (17)
15.   True. (23)
16.   True. (23)
17.   False. Although functionalists do believe the family has lost many of its traditional
      purposes, they do not believe they have all been lost. Some of the existing functions are
      presently under assault or are being eroded. (26)
18.   False. Some conflict theorists use this theory in a much broader sense. (28)
19.   True. (30)
20.   False. Many sociologists are seeking ways to apply their knowledge, and many
      departments of sociology now offer courses in applied sociology. (31)

  1. sociological perspective (4)
  2. Bourgeoisie (11)
  3. Durkheim (11)
  4. social reform (21)
  5. theory (23)
  6. symbolic interactionism (23)
  7. functionalism (25)
  8. manifest (26)
  9. conflict (29)
  10. equal (29)
  11. marriage (29)
  12. macro (29)
  13. social analysis (31)
  14. practical (31)
  15. Globalization (31)

1. c Auguste Comte: proposed the use of positivism
2. a Herbert Spencer: coined the phrase "the survival of the fittest"
3. g Karl Marx: believed the key to human history was class struggle
4. h C. Wright Mills: encouraged North American sociologists to focus on social reform
5. d Emile Durkheim: stressed social facts
6 . i Harriet Martineau: published Society in America; translated Comte's work into
7. j Robert K. Merton: distinguished between functions and dysfunctions
8. b W. E. B. Du Bois: was an early African-American sociologist
9. f Max Weber: believed religion was a central force in social change
10. e Jane Addams: tried to bridge the gap between the powerful and the powerless


1. Explain what the sociological perspective encompasses and then, using that perspective,
discuss the forces that shaped the discipline of sociology.
     There are two parts to this question. First, you are asked to define the sociological
perspective. As you define this, you would want to mention the idea of social location,
perhaps by bringing into your essay C. Wright Mills' observations on the connection between
biography and history (4-5). Another way to explain the perspective would be to contrast
sociology with other disciplines, talking about what sociology is and what it isn't (5-7).
     The second part of the essay involves discussing the forces that shaped sociology and its
early followers. What you are being asked is to think about what was going on in the social
world in the early nineteenth century that might have led to the birth of this new discipline.
Referring back to the book, you would want to identify three: (1) the Industrial Revolution;
(2) the political revolutions of America and France; (3) imperialism; and (4) the emergence
of the scientific method (8-9). You would conclude by discussing how each of the early
sociologists -- Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max
Weber -- were influenced by these broader forces in making a contribution to sociology (9-
16). You could also bring into the discussion some of the material on sexism in early
sociology, noting how the ideas about the appropriate role for women in society functioned
to exclude women like Harriet Martineau and Jane Addams from the discipline (16-19), or
you could talk about the emergence of sociology in North America (17-22).

2. Emile Durkheim studied European society at a time when it was undergoing major
social upheaval as a result of the industrial revolution. In this first chapter, you are
introduced to some of his major contributions -- his work on suicide and his conclusions
about social integration and anomie. Summarize what his contributions were and then
consider how they are still useful for understanding social life today.
     You could begin by talking briefly about the research on suicide and how Durkheim
analyzed how suicide rates varied for different types of social groups (11-12). You should
also stress that Durkheim was trying to look beyond individual characteristics to locating
social factors that underlie suicide; this was critically important to him as he tried to establish
sociology as a separate academic discipline. In explaining this pattern, he identified social
integration , or the degree to which individuals are tied to their social group, as a key social
factor in explaining suicide (11-12). At that time, the connections between individuals and
many traditional social groups were weakening, because of the growing individualism and
impersonality of the emerging industrial society. Durkheim called for the creation of new
social groups to stand between the state and the individual (12).
     You then need to make the case as to why these concepts of social integration and
anomie are still relevant. You should point out that the social conditions that Durkheim
described still exist. If anything, the trends that he first identified have intensified. As
examples, you could talk about how Durkheim's concepts could be applied to patterns of
suicide among teenagers or the outbreaks of school violence in large, impersonal high

3. The textbook notes that Verstehen and social facts go hand in hand; explain how this is
so. Assume that you have been asked to carry out research to find out more about why
growing numbers of women and children are homeless and what particular problems they
face. Discuss how you could use both Verstehen and social facts in your study.
     First, you would want to define what Verstehen and social facts are and how they are
compatible in terms of arriving at a complete picture of a social pattern (14-15). Then you
can argue that social facts would be most appropriate in trying to explain why growing
numbers of women and children are homeless -- you might look at the changing economic
status of women in society, the increase in the number of female-headed households, and the
decline in the amount of affordable housing. On the other hand, by applying Verstehen, you

                                                     CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER ANSWER KEY

would be able to discover what particular problems they face, through face-to-face interviews
at shelter sites you would be able to experience firsthand some of what they are experiencing.

4. Explain why there has been a continuing tension between analyzing society and working
toward reforming society since the very beginning of society.
      Referring to the work of such early sociologists as Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim,
you could begin by noting that sociology has had twin goals -- the scientific study of society
and the application of scientific knowledge to social reform -- from its inception (9, 11).
When sociology was transplanted to the United States at the end of the nineteenth century,
this society was undergoing significant changes, with industrialization, urbanization, and
immigration among them. The earliest North American sociologists, like their European
predecessors, defined the sociologist's role as both social scientist and social reformer (17-
18). At the same time, the record suggests that the primary emphasis has generally been on
the sociologist's work as social scientist. For example, women who had been trained as
sociologists but then excluded from the universities, turned to social reform and were denied
the title of sociologist; instead, they were called social workers by male sociologists working
from within academic departments of universities (18).
      At this point you could draw on material in the text about the development of North
American sociology, as well as the discussion of the different phases it has passed through.
From the 1920s through the early postWorld War II era, the emphasis was on sociological
research rather than social reform, as departments of sociology become more widely
established (31-32). Sociologists like Talcott Parsons, whose work was primarily theoretical
in nature, came to dominate the field. While the early part of this period was one of
significant turmoil (with the Great Depression and World War II), at the end of this phase,
social problems were largely "invisible," given the general prosperity of the immediate
postWorld War II era.
      You could point out that people like C. Wright Mills kept the tradition of social reform
alive during these years. And with the social upheavals of the 1950s and 1960s -- the civil
rights movement, the women's movement, and the anti-war movement but to name a few --
the focus once again shifted back to social reform (21).
      You could conclude by talking about applied sociology, a recent development that
attempts to blend these two traditions. While it has gained legitimacy within the discipline,
there are still those on both sides of this debate who reject applied sociology. For those
whose emphasis is on pure sociology, it smacks of social reform, while for those who believe
sociology should be working to reform society, it doesn't go far enough. The debate over the
appropriate focus of sociological inquiry is unlikely to be resolved any time soon, because it
reflects traditions that go back to the very origins of the discipline. Both sides can find
ample support for their positions within the work and writings of earlier sociologists (21-22).

5. Explain each of the theoretical perspectives that are used in sociology and describe how
a sociologist affiliated with one or another of the perspectives might undertake a study of
gangs. Discuss how all three can be used in research.
     There are three major perspectives in sociology: symbolic interactionism, functional
analysis, and conflict theory. Your first step is to explain the essential nature of each
perspective and then to propose a research topic that would be consistent with the
perspective. Because a symbolic interactionist focuses on the symbols that people use t o
establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another, in
designing a research project on gangs, he or she would want to find out what meaning gangs
and gang membership have for individuals who belong to them, as well as those who live in
communities in which gangs operate (23-24). A functionalist, who tries to identify the
functions of a particular social pattern, would choose to study what contributions gangs make
within the fabric of social life and the dysfunctions of gangs (25-26). Finally, a conflict
theorist would study the competition for scarce resources among gangs and between gangs and
the larger society because he or she is interested in struggles over power and control within

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