EDUCATIONAL PROFILE OF THE PHILIPPINES – University of North

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EDUCATIONAL PROFILE OF THE PHILIPPINES
          AND BEST PRACTICES IN FILIPINO SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS
                            Ms. Alethea M. Florido
                             Garinger High School
                         Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools


I. Background Profile of the Philippines and the Filipino Culture


        The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands. It stretches from the south of China to
the northern tip of Borneo. The country has over a hundred ethnic groups and a mixture of foreign
influences which have molded a unique Filipino culture. It is the third largest English-speaking
country in the world. The country is divided into three geographic areas: Luzon, Visayas and
Mindanao. It has 14 regions, 73 provinces and 60 cities. The capital is Manila.

        The Filipino is basically of Malay stock with a sprinkling of Chinese, American, Spanish,
and Arab blood. The Philippines has a population of 76.5 million as of May 2000, and it is hard to
distinguish accurately the lines between stocks. From a long history of Western colonial rule,
interspersed with the visits of merchants and traders, evolved a people of a unique blend of east
and west, both in appearance and culture.

        The Filipino character is actually a little bit of all the cultures put together. The bayanihan
or spirit of kinship and camaraderie that Filipinos are famous for is said to be taken from Malay
forefathers. The close family relations are said to have been inherited from the Chinese. The
piousness comes from the Spaniards who introduced Christianity in the 16th century. Hospitality is
a common denominator in the Filipino character and this is what distinguishes the Filipino.
Filipinos are probably one of the few, if not the only, English-proficient Oriental people today.
Pilipino is the official national language, with English considered as the country's unofficial one.

        The Filipinos are divided geographically and culturally into regions, and each regional
group is recognizable by distinct traits and dialects - the sturdy and frugal llocanos of the north, the
industrious Tagalogs of the central plains, the carefree Visayans from the central islands, and the
colorful tribesmen and religious Moslems of Mindanao. Tribal communities can be found scattered
across the archipelago. The Philippines has more than 111 dialects spoken, owing to the
subdivisions of these basic regional and cultural groups.

        The country is marked by a true blend of cultures; truly in the Philippines, East meets
West. The background of the people is Indonesian and Malay. There are Chinese and Spanish
elements as well. The history of American rule and contact with merchants and traders culminated
in a unique blend of East and West, both in the appearance and culture of the Filipinos, or people
of the Philippines.

        Hospitality, a trait displayed by every Filipino, makes these people legendary in Southeast
Asia. Seldom can you find such hospitable people who enjoy the company of their Western
visitors. Perhaps due to their long association with Spain, Filipinos are emotional and passionate
about life in a way that seems more Latin than Asian.
       The Spaniards introduced Christianity (the Roman Catholic faith) and succeeded in
converting the overwhelming majority of Filipinos. At least 83% of the total population belongs to
the Roman Catholic faith.

       The American occupation was responsible for teaching the Filipino people the English
language. The Philippines is currently the third-largest English speaking country in the world.

II. History of Philippine Education

        Filipinos have a deep regard for education, which they view as a primary avenue for
upward social and economic mobility. From the onset of United States colonial rule, with its heavy
emphasis on mass public education, Filipinos internalized the American ideal of a democratic
society in which individuals could get ahead through attainment of a good education. Middle-class
parents make tremendous sacrifices in order to provide secondary and higher education for their
children.

             TRIBAL TUTORS                              SPANISH MISSIONARIES
     -education was informal and                       -  education was "religion-
     unstructured                                         centered"
     -children were provided with                      - education for the elite only
     vocational training and less                      - Spanish is compulsory
     academics by parents and houses                   - Boys and girls school are
     of tribal tutors                                     separated
                                                       - Inadequate, suppressed and
                                                          controlled


          FILIPINIZATION OF
             INSTRUCTION                                      "THOMASITES"
        - free public school system                -American teachers
        - assignment of Filipino                   - free and compulsory elementary
        secretary for department of                - English is the medium of instruction
        Instruction                                - 600 teachers from USA taught in
                                                   Philippines


       JAPANESE EDUCATIONAL
              POLICIES                          TRIFOCAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
         - creation of ministry of                - DECS (Elementary and High
           education                                 School)
         - teaching of Tagalog,                   - CHED  Higher Education
           Phil. History and                      - TESDA  Technology Based
           Character Education                       Education
III. Educational Profile

        Philippine education is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of
instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (non-government).

        The general pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre-primary level (nursery and
kindergarten) offered in most private schools; six years of primary education, followed by four
years of secondary education. College education usually takes four, sometimes five and in some
cases as in medical and law schools, as long as eight years. Graduate schooling is an additional two
or more years.

Metro Manila has a high literacy rate of 96 percent with student population of 2,351,944.

Classes in Philippine schools start in June and end in March. Colleges and universities follow the
semestral calendar from June-October and November-March.


BASIC EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES

      intended to meet basic learning needs
      lays the foundation on which subsequent learning can be based
      encompasses early childhood, elementary, high school...

BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM FOR ELEMENTARY (6 years) Grade 1-Grade 6

Subject Area
1). English
2). Science
3). Filipino
4). Edukasyong Pangtahanan at Pangkabuhayan (Home Economics and Livelihood)
5). Mathematics
      Lesson Guides for Mathematics
      - Mathemetics I
      - Mathematics II
      - Mathematics III
      - Mathematics IV
      - Mathemetics V
      - Mathematics VI
6). Makabayan (PE, Health, Music and Social Studies)

7).Edukasyong Pagpapakatao (Character and Values Education)
     - PELC - Kapayapaan (Peace)
     - PELC - Paggalang (Respect)
     - PELC - Pagmamahal 1 (Love)
     - PELC - Pagmamahal (Disiplina) (Love and Discipline)
     - PELC - Pagmamalasakit sa Kapwa (Caring for Others)
       - PELC - Pananampalataya (Faith)
       - PELC - Pinagkukunang Yaman (Pagtitipid) (Frugality)
       - PELC - Katotohanan (Honesty)
       - PELC - Pangkabuhayan (Love of Labor)
       - PELC - Kalusugan (Value for Health)
       - PELC - Saloobin (Self Reflection and Principles)

BASIC SECONDARY EDUCATION, BSE (4 years) First year to Fourth year

       Stage of free formal education following the elementary level below college level
        corresponding to four (4) years of high school
       Can be attained through alternative learning system

OBJECTIVES:

       To continue to promote the objectives of elementary education
       To discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of the student so as to equip
        him with skills for productive endeavor and/or prepare for tertiary education

Republic Act No. 6655

       Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988
       It is the policy of the State to provide free secondary education to all qualified citizens and
        to promote quality education at all levels.


BASIC STATISTICS

       Enrolment - 6,032,440
           o Public 4,791,069 (79%)
           o Private 1,241,371 (21%)
       Schools - 7,893
           o Public 4,632 (59%)
           o Private 3,261 (41%)



PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

       Completion Rate
            o From Grade 1 48.10%
            o From Year 1 70.62%
       Teacher-Student Ratio 1:36
       Transition Rate
            o Elem to secondary 100.02%
       Dropout Rate 8.50%
       Participation Rate 66.06%
       Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) 79.49%
FUNCTIONS OF BSE

     Conducts studies and formulates, develops and evaluates programs and educational
      standards of secondary education
     Formulates guidelines to improve the general management of secondary schools
     Develops curricular designs, prepares instructional materials and prepares and evaluates
      programs to upgrade the quality of the teaching and non-teaching staff at the secondary
      level


LEARNING AREAS, TIME ALLOMENT, UNIT CREDITS

     Filipino: 1 hour 4x a week, 1.2 unit credits
     English: 1 hour daily 1.5 unit credits
     Mathematics: 1 hour daily 1.5 unit credits
     Science: 1 hour 20 min daily, 2 unit credits
     MAKABAYAN
          o Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies): 40 minutes daily, 1 unit credit
          o Technology & Livelihood Education: 1 hour 4x a week, 1.2 unit credits
          o Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga (Values Education): 1 hour, once a week (Years 1-3),
              0.3 unit credit; 1 hour twice a week
          o Music, Arts, Physical Education, Health (MAPEH): 1 hour 4 times a week (Years
              1-3), 1.2 unit credits; 1 hour, 5 times a week (+ CAT in Year IV), 1.5 unit credits


MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION

     ENGLISH for English, Science, Mathematics,Technology and Home Economics (TLE)
      and Music, Arts, PE and Health (MAPEH)
     FILIPINO for Filipino, Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies) and Edukasyon sa
      Pagpapahalaga (Values Education)


SCHOOL YEAR

     First Day of Classes  First Monday of June
     Last Day of Classes  Last Friday of March
     Not less than 200 school days Monday through Friday
     Four Grading Periods of 10 weeks each
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