American Government, Brief Edition

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Study Guide

American Government,
   Brief Edition
            EIGHTH EDITION



              James Q. Wilson




                Kyle Smith
              Western Texas College




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ISBN 13: 978-0-618-71398-0

ISBN 10: 0-618-71398-1
Contents


   TO THE STUDENT ................................................................................................................................... V
   CHAPTER 1  WHAT SHOULD WE KNOW ABOUT AMERICAN GOVERNMENT? .................................. 1
   CHAPTER 2  THE CONSTITUTION .................................................................................................... 11
   CHAPTER 3  CIVIL LIBERTIES ......................................................................................................... 31
   CHAPTER 4  CIVIL RIGHTS .............................................................................................................. 48
   CHAPTER 5  FEDERALISM ............................................................................................................... 58
   CHAPTER 6  PUBLIC OPINION AND THE MEDIA .............................................................................. 74
   CHAPTER 7  POLITICAL PARTIES AND INTEREST GROUPS .............................................................. 96
   CHAPTER 8  CAMPAIGNS AND ELECTIONS.................................................................................... 119
   CHAPTER 9  CONGRESS ................................................................................................................. 142
   CHAPTER 10  THE PRESIDENCY .................................................................................................... 168
   CHAPTER 11  THE BUREAUCRACY ............................................................................................... 192
   CHAPTER 12  THE JUDICIARY ....................................................................................................... 213
   CHAPTER 13  MAKING DOMESTIC POLICY ................................................................................... 233
   CHAPTER 14  MAKING FOREIGN AND MILITARY POLICY ............................................................. 248
   CHAPTER 15  AMERICAN GOVERNMENT: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE......................................... 259




Copyright  Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
To the Student


This Study Guide with Readings is a self-study accompaniment to American Government, Brief
Version, Eighth Edition, by James Q. Wilson. It serves two purposes. First, it supplements, but does not
replace, the text. By using these two works together, you will be able to learn the most from the text and
enhance your general knowledge of the structure and operation of U.S. government. Second, this Study
Guide will assist you in practicing and preparing for your exams and should serve to improve your test-
taking skills. These two purposes are inseparable. Good study habits, including hard work, practice, and
review, are critical to learning and understanding any subject matter, and a thorough understanding is
the best preparation for exams.
This introduction begins with an overview of what you should expect to learn from a college-level
course on American government. Detailed advice is offered on how to get the most from this Study
Guide, and some suggestions for obtaining supplementary information from additional readings and
Internet resources are provided.

THE STUDY OF U.S. GOVERNMENT
In colleges and universities, U.S. government is usually taught as part of an academic discipline known
as political science. Political science, however, differs from typical high school courses in several
respects. High school government courses customarily emphasize history. Furthermore, high school
courses generally seek to promote citizenship by, among other things, encouraging you to vote.
While this approach and goal is important, college-level political science develops a broader, more
theoretical perspective of government. Political science is often about contemporary government rather
than history. It compares the U.S. political system with other systems and does not necessarily assume
that our system or our Constitution is superior to others. It focuses mainly on how government really
works. It provides, for instance, answers to and explanations for the following questions: Why do senior
citizens have more political influence than do college students? Why do members of Congress spend
more time talking with constituents and lobbyists, attending committee meetings/hearings, and
participating in fact-finding missions than they do debating legislation? How and why have presidential
candidates and the media contributed to more candidate-centered campaigns that don't focus on issues
and party labels? Do the federal courts merely apply the law or do they make policy, and are they
sensitive to public opinion? Why do interest groups sometimes seem to reflect the views of the top
leadership of their organization rather than the views of the rank-and-file membership on policy issues?
Political science occasionally frustrates students seeking one "correct" or "perfect" solution to real-
world problems. Political science theories often provide conflicting or even equally valid perspectives
on issues. A case in point deals with the issue of symbolic speech: according to one constitutional
theory, flag and draft card burning and painting exhibits that some people find offensive and indecent
are forms of "free expression" protected by the First Amendment. Yet, according to another
constitutional theory, only "speech" and "press" are protected by the First Amendment, while the First
Amendment does not extend to flag and draft card burning and painting exhibits. Another case involves
searches and seizures: according to one constitutional perspective, evidence obtained by police without
a search warrant based on probable cause is a violation of the Fourth Amendment protection against
illegal searches and seizures, and hence, inadmissible in court ("exclusionary rule"). Nonetheless,
according to another constitutional perspective, evidence seized by police with the aid of a search


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