AP Biology Lab Manual for Teachers

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AP Biology
                   Lab Manual
                   for Teachers
                        Supplement




Carolyn Schofield Bronston and Allison Ingram
The College Board
The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to
connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board
is composed of more than 5,600 schools, colleges, universities and other educational
organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their
parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in
college readiness, college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment,
and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT, the
PSAT/NMSQT and the Advanced Placement Program (AP). The College Board is
committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied
in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns.
For further information, visit www.collegeboard.com.




 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement
Program, AP, AP Central, SAT and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College
Board. inspiring minds is a trademark owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a
registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation.
All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners.
Contents
  Introduction
  Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis..............................................................1
  Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis.......................................................................3
  Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis. ..................................................................6
  Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis.....................................8
  Lab 5: Cell Respiration. ....................................................................... 10
  Lab 6: Molecular Biology..................................................................... 12
  Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms............................................................ 14
  Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution..................................... 17
  Lab 9: Transpiration............................................................................. 19
  Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System. ............................22
  Lab 11: Animal Behavior.....................................................................25
  Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic
  Primary Productivity...........................................................................27
  Related Links to AP Biology Free-Response Questions. .........30
  About the Authors................................................................................. 31
                                                 AP Biology Lab Manual for Teachers -- Supplement




Introduction
The 12 recommended labs that were developed for the College Board's AP Biology
program (sentimentally dubbed "The Dirty Dozen") have always served as a testament
to the belief that science does not happen in a textbook or in a lecture, but occurs when
students engage in a "hands-on and personal" investigation of living things and their
processes.
For each of the AP labs, the supplement pages attempt to:
    point out the most common difficulties and misconceptions that students
     experience concerning the lab topic;
    mention useful modifications in lab preparation or procedure and share cost-
     cutting and time-saving tips from fellow teachers;
    suggest ways in which the lab can become more open-ended and inquiry based;
    discuss technology options for carrying out the lab;
    provide links to past AP Exam questions that model good assessment tools
     and help determine the level of student understanding of the lab work and the
     concepts upon which it is based;
    provide links to alternative labs that will satisfy the lab objectives and outstanding
     resources for the topic (Note: The Web sites listed in this supplement were all
     functioning at the time of publication.)
                                                AP Biology Lab Manual for Teachers -- Supplement




Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
Overview
The information will assist teachers with aspects of Lab 1 that are not necessarily
addressed in the Lab Manual. These suggestions are provided to enhance the students'
overall lab experience as well as their conceptual understanding.


Addressing Student Misunderstandings
    Many students conclude that the terms iso-, hypo- and hypertonic refer to water
     content rather than to the solutes in the solution. Remind them that hypotonic
     translates as "low solutes" and, therefore, a higher percentage of water content.
    Water potential is an extremely difficult concept for students. It is defined as the
     measure of the relative tendency of water to move from a higher potential to a
     lower potential. Stress that the more negative the water potential, the higher the
     concentration of solutes present in the system: the water potential of distilled water
     is zero.


Suggestions for Procedural Modifications
    Be sure that the bags do not leak, that room is left for expansion and that the
     students use the same balance to weigh the bags before submersion and after
     submersion.
    Filling dialysis bags is often messy: large 50 mL syringes work very well and avoid
     overflow from beakers or funnels.
    Cheap sandwich bags can be used in place of the more expensive dialysis tubing in
     Exercise 1A.
    A French fry cutter produces potato strips that are easily cut into perfect cubes,
     eliminating the problems associated with cork borers in Exercise 1C.

    Red onions or Tradescantia pendula are excellent for plasmolysis in Exercise 1E.




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