Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future

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Chapter 2 End-of-chapter questions
                                                (in syllabus as well)
    Environmental Science: Toward a                Review questions  write answers in notebook
    Sustainable Future                             which will be graded on test day
    Richard T. Wright                              Review questions (p. 53): 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 12, 13, 15,
                                                   16
              Chapter 2                            Thinking environmentally (p. 53): 2, 4
              Ecosystems: What They Are
                                                   Make sure you complete both the daily
                                                   vocabulary words and the end-of-chapter
                                                   questions. I look for both in your notebooks!!

                                            1                                                                           2




                                                   PARIS (AFP) - For all its numbing ferocity, Hurricane Katrina will not be
Vocabulary  DAY 1                                 a unique event, say scientists, who say that global warming appears to
                                                   be pumping up the power of big Atlantic storms. [8-30-05]
    Define in your notebook (I'll check!)          2005 is on track to be the worst-ever year for hurricanes, according to
                                                   experts measuring ocean temperatures and trade winds -- the two big
   Biota,                                          factors that breed these storms in the Caribbean and tropical North
                                                   Atlantic.
   biotic community,                               Earlier this month, Tropical Storm Risk, a London-based consortium of
   abiotic,                                        experts, predicted that the region would see 22 tropical storms during
                                                   the six-month June-November season, the most ever recorded and
   species,                                        more than twice the average annual tally since records began in 1851.
   population,                                     Seven of these storms would strike the United States, of which three
   association,                                    would be hurricanes, it said.
                                                   Already, 2004 and 2003 were exceptional years: they marked the
   ecosystem,                                      highest two-year totals ever recorded for overall hurricane activity in
   ecology,                                        the North Atlantic.
                                                   This increase has also coincided with a big rise in Earth's surface
   ecotone,                                        temperature in recent years, driven by greenhouse gases that cause
   synergism,                                      the Sun's heat to be stored in the sea, land and air rather than radiate
                                                   back out to space.
   permafrost                                      A key factor in ferocity is the temperature differential between the sea
                                                   surface and the air above the storm. The warmer the sea, the bigger the
                                            3
                                                   differential and the bigger the potential to "pump up" the storm.      4




Vocabulary  DAY 2                              Vocabulary  DAY 3
    Define in your notebook                         Define in your notebook
   landscape,                                      consumers,
   biomes,                                         detritus feeders,
   biosphere,                                      decomposers,
   biotic structure,
                                                   primary consumers,
   trophic structure,
                                                   herbivores,
   organic,
   inorganic,                                      secondary consumers,
   chemosynthesis,                                 carnivores,
   fungi,                                          omnivores
   autotrophs,
   heterotrophs                             5                                                                           6




                                                                                                                               1
Vocabulary  DAY 4                                                      Vocabulary  DAY 5
Vocabulary quiz  open notebook (no textbook)                              predator,
         abiotic             detritus feeders                              prey,
                                                Put name on paper          parasites,
         ecotone             omnivores
                                                                           host,
         permafrost          population                                    pathogens,
                                                                           food chain,
         trophic structure   biomes                                        food web,
                                                                           trophic levels,
         autotrophs          heterotrophs
                                                                           biomass,
                                                                           biomass pyramid
                                                                    7                                                           8




Vocabulary  DAY 6                                                      The Organization of Ecosystems (outline of
   habitat,
                                                                        chapter)                         2.1
   ecological niche,                                                       A description of ecosystems
   microclimate,                                                           The structure of ecosystems
   zones of stress,                                                        The relationship between ecosystems and biomes
   law of limiting factors                                                 Human impacts on ecosystem structure




                                                                    9                                                           10




Ecosystem Types in the United States                                    Ecosystems: A Description

   Coasts and oceans                                                       Biotic communities: grouping or assemblage of
   Farmlands                                                               plants, animals, and microbes
   Forests                                                                 Species: different kinds of plants, animals, and
   Fresh waters                                                            microbes in the community
   Grasslands and shrub lands                                              Populations: number of individuals that make up
                                                                           the interbreeding, reproducing group
   Urban and suburban areas
                                                                           Associations: how a biotic community fits into the
                                                                           landscape

                                                                11                                                              12




                                                                                                                                     2
How Ecosystems Are Formed                                      Ecosystems

                                                                  A grouping of plants, animals, and microbes
                                                                  occupying an explicit unit of space and interacting
     Abiotics (moisture and temperature)                          with each other and their environment
       predict
                 Plants (+ moisture = forest)                     Play video  biomes, ecotone, estuary [1:30-4:00
                         (temperature = forest type)              and 11:00-14:30]
                   predict
                             Animals (lynx or bobcat)


                                                          13                                                            14




Ecotone: transitional region between different                 Ecotone: transitional region between different
ecosystems                                                     ecosystems
   Shares many of the                                             Shares many of the
   species and characteristics                                    species and characteristics
   of both ecosystems                                             of both ecosystems
   May also include unique                                        May also include unique
   conditions that support                                        conditions that support
   distinctive plant and animal                                   distinctive plant and animal
   species                                                        species




                                                          15                                                            16




Topics on Ecosystem Structure                       2.2        Autotrophs = Producers = Self feeders

   Trophic categories
   Trophic relationships: food chains, food webs,
   trophic levels
   Nonfeeding relationships: symbiosis
   Abiotic factors

   Show video - Producers Capture Solar Energy


                                                          17                                                            18




                                                                                                                             3
Inorganic and Organic

   Inorganic                    Organic
    Oxygen                       All living things

    Carbon dioxide               Products of living

    Nitrogen                     things
    Water

    pH




                                                         19                                             20




Consumers = Heterotrophs

   Primary consumers = herbivores = rabbits: eat
   plant material
   Secondary consumers = carnivores = predators =
   coyotes: prey are herbivores and other animals
   Parasites = predator = either plant or animal: prey
   are plants or animals
   Detritus feeders and decomposers = bacteria and
   fungi: prey are plants or animals

                                                         21                                             22




Trophic Categories                                            Indian pipe  chlorophylless saprophyte
                                                              Monotropa uniflora [#27 in S.G.]




                                                         23                                             24




                                                                                                             4
Trophic Levels: Food Chain                                           Match Organisms with Trophic Level(s)
               Third-order Consumer                                                           Trophic Levels
                                                                      Organisms   Producer   Primary    Secondary   Third-
                                                                                             Consumer   Consumer    Order
                Secondary Consumer                                                                                  Consumer

                                                                      Plants          X

                Primary Consumer                                      Rabbits                   X
                                                                      Snakes                                X          X
                                                                      Owls                                  X          X
                      Producer                                        Bacteria        X         X           X          X

                                                               25                                                              26




                                                                    Trophic Relationships among Producers and
  Match Organisms with Trophic Level(s)                             Consumers
                             Trophic Levels
  Organisms    Producer   Primary    Secondary   Third-Order
                          Consumer   Consumer    Consumer


  Autotrophs      X

  Herbivores                 X
  Carnivores                             X            X

  Omnivores                  X           X            X
  Parasites                  X           X            X

                                                               27                                                              28




   Food Webs




                                                               29                                                              30




                                                                                                                                    5
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