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Human Anatomy & Physiology II
 Course Material and Study Guide
           -Complete Version-

            Image source

                 2011-2012 DB&MLT
                       14 Edition

Preface to the Fourteenth Edition
Human Anatomy and Physiology is a two-semester course sequence (BIO 23 & 24) offered by the
Department of Biology and Medical Laboratory Technology in response to the need for basic information
about the structure and function of the human organism. BIO 23 & 24 are required for all Allied Health
Science students enrolled in the Nursing, Radiology Technology, Therapeutic Recreation and Nuclear
Medicine Technology Programs. The course may also serve as a useful adjunct to other curricula, e.g.,
Medical Laboratory Technology, Community Health, Human Services and some Liberal Arts Options.
Note: your financial aid may not cover courses that are not listed on your curriculum pattern sheet. If you
are enrolled in a program that does not require BIO 23 or 24, please check with your financial aid officer
before registering for the course.

BIO 23 and BIO 24 are conducted in an integrated lecture-laboratory format for the study of physiological
processes, as well as gross and microscopic anatomy. The six hours of class contact hours per week is
equally divided between the lecture and laboratory meetings in the context of a 14-week academic semester
followed by a final lecture examination in the 15th week of the academic semester.

The first semester of the two semester course sequence, BIO 23, covers the following topics and systems of
the human organism: human structural and functional organization, basic chemistry, cell structure and
function, foundations of cell metabolism, histology, the integumentary system, the skeletal system, the
muscular system, the nervous system, and the endocrine system.

The second semester of the two semester course sequence, BIO 24, applies essential concepts from BIO 23
in the study of the following topics and systems of the human organism: cardiovascular system, lymphatic
system and immunity, respiratory system, urinary system and fluid and electrolyte balance, digestive system
and metabolism, and the reproductive system.

The purpose of this guide is to provide a general framework for organizing the content of the course. Your
instructor(s) will give you the most valuable guidance regarding the relative importance of various topics,
therefore you must attend all lecture and lab classes in order to succeed in this course.

This guide contains:
     space for you to record important contact information for your instructors and classmates
     space for you to record your grades (and formulas for calculating your average)
     a calendar showing that dates that your class will meet
     course policies and academic responsibilities
     information to help you optimize your study efforts to get the best grade
     a course syllabus to use as a guide for topic coverage and exam dates
     lab worksheets
     lecture outlines and study questions
     instructions for downloading additional lab and lecture documents

                           Good luck, and best wishes for a successful semester!
                                                                                                                 A&P Course Coordinators
                                                                                                                    Abass Abdullahi, Ph.D.
                                                                                                                          Kyeng Lee, Ph.D.
                                                                                                                  Carlos Liachovitzky, M.S.
This guide is the product of the collaborative effort of many faculty of the Biology and Medical Laboratory Technology Department. It has been
mutating since the first edition up to the present. This guide is a continuous work in progress thanks to the input of students and faculty of the
department. Dr. Ronald Thomas and Dr. Henry Hermo authored the first version in Fall 1988, and many others contributed along its history. Thanks
to Dr. Howard Fuld, and Dr. Maureen Gannon, who reviewed extensively the first editions; and Dr. Nichole McDaniel, Dr. Shylaja Akkaraju, and
Prof. Carlos Liachovitzky, who contributed widely with the most recent versions.

                                                Unless specified all images used in this study guide are Copyright  McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
Table of Contents
Section Information and Grade Sheet                                                                             1
Course Syllabus and Student Learning Outcomes                                                                   2
2011-2012 Academic Calendars and Schedules of Classes                                                           5
General Course Information and Policies                                                                         9
Instructor and Student Responsibilities                                                                        12
Frequently Asked Questions                                                                                     14
Learning Styles and Preferences and Advisement Information                                                     18
Biology-Related Programs at BCC                                                                                19
Instructions for Downloading Course Documents and Printing Information                                         20
Lecture Topic and Review Questions
      Topic 1:        The Circulatory System: The Heart                                                        21
      Topic 2:        The Circulatory System: Blood Vessels                                                    23
      Topic 3:        The Circulatory System: Blood                                                            26
      Topic 4:        The Lymphatic & Immune System                                                            29
      Topic 5:        The Respiratory System                                                                   32
      Topic 6:        The Urinary System                                                                       35
      Topic 7:        Water, Electrolyte and Acid Base Balance                                                 37
      Topic 8:        The Digestive System                                                                     38
      Topic 9:        Nutrition and Metabolism                                                                 39
      Topic 10:       The Reproductive System                                                                  41

Laboratory Exercise (labs 7 and 14 are exams)
      Lab 1:          The Circulatory System: Heart Anatomy & Blood Flow                                       42
      Lab 2:          The Circulatory System: Blood Vessels                                                    46
      Lab 3:          The Circulatory System: Cardiovascular Physiology: Blood Pressure and Electrocardiography 56
      Lab 4:          The Circulatory System: Blood Analysis and Typing                                        64
      Lab 5:          The Respiratory System: Respiratory Anatomy                                              72
      Lab 6:          The Respiratory System: Spirometry                                                       79
      Lab 8:          The Urinary System: Urinary Anatomy and Physiology                                       84
      Lab 9:          The Digestive System: Anatomy and Processes of the Digestive System                      89
      Lab 10:         The Digestive System: Digestion and Enzymatic Activity                                   97
      Lab 11:         The Reproductive System: Male and Female Reproductive Anatomy                           106
      Lab 12:         The Reproductive System: Gametogenesis                                                  113
      Lab 13:         The Reproductive System: Human Development                                              120

Laboratory Rules: Remove bottom portion and hand in to your lab instructor)                                   124
Section Information and Grade Sheet
     BIO 24, Section #
     Lecture                                                 Laboratory
     Building & Room:                                        Building & Room:
     Lecture Instructor:                                     Laboratory Instructor:
     Office Phone:                                           Office Phone:
     E-mail:                                                 E-mail:
     Office:                                                 Office:
     Hours:                                                  Hours:

        Department Office: Meister Hall (ME) 415                  Department Phone: (718) 289-5512

        Names and phone numbers/email addresses of several of your classmates:

 Grade Record
 (This will help you to keep track of how you're doing in the course). If your instructor returns tests and
 quizzes, it is your responsibility to save them.

                 Lecture                                                         Lab
        Exam 1                                           Quiz 1                              Quiz 6
        Exam 2                                           Quiz 2                              Quiz 7
        Exam 3                                           Quiz 3                              Quiz 8
        Exam 4                                           Quiz 4                              Quiz 9
        Final Exam                                       Quiz 5                              Quiz 10
                                                    MT Practical                       Final Practical
 Lecture Average
                                                                                                 BCC Grading Scale
 = average all exams (add all the scores and divide by the number of exams)                      Letter Numerical
                                                                                                 Grade     Grade
                                                                                                  A+      97 -100
 Quiz Average
                                                                                                  A      93 - 96.9
 = average all quizzes (add all the scores and divide by the number of quizzes)                   A-     90 - 92.9
                                                                                                  B+     87 - 89.9
 Lab Average (double check with your instructor about the lab grade breakdown!)                   B      83 -86.9
                                                                                                  B-     80 - 82.9
 = (0.3 x MT Practical) + (0.3 x Final Practical) + (0.4 x Quiz Average)                          C+     77 - 79.9
                                                                                                  C      73 - 76.9
 Course Average                                                                                   C-     70 - 72.9
 = (0.6 x Lecture Average) + (0.4 x Lab Average)                                                  D+     67 - 69.9
                                                                                                  D      63 - 66.9
                                                                                                  D-     60 - 62.9
                                                                                                  F       0 - 59.9
Course Syllabus and Student Learning Outcomes  BIO24
This course syllabus is only intended to serve as a guide. More detailed descriptions of lecture and lab
topics are available in the lecture outlines, and in the lab worksheets. Your instructor may modify the
timing or order of topics according to his or her assessment of class needs. The number of exams
and the topics covered may also vary. Your instructor will notify you of any changes in class. It is
your responsibility to be there to get accurate information.

Textbook and Course Material

1. Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function; Kenneth Saladin; McGraw-Hill Publishers, 6th
Edition. (ISBN 9780077496913). Textbook options: 1. Hardcover text version, 2. Three-hole punch version, and 3. E-
version (Half the price, but note that the license is good for only 360 days) at

 2. Human Anatomy & Physiology II - BIO 24, Course Material and Study Guide. Biology and MLT
 Department. 14th edition.

 Student Learning Outcomes

The General Student Learning Outcomes listed below form the unifying foundation for all topics and will
be emphasized throughout Human Anatomy and Physiology I (Bio23) and Human Anatomy and
Physiology II (Bio24). These general learning outcomes are adapted from material copyrighted by the
Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) and are linked to topic specific learning outcomes
listed in a separate document (being developed).

   General Human Anatomy and Physiology Student Learning Outcomes                      BCC General Education
1.      Develop a vocabulary of appropriate terminology to effectively                  Reasoning and Analysis
communicate information related to anatomy and physiology.
2.      Recognize the anatomical structures and explain the physiological                  Reasoning and Analysis
functions of body systems.
3.      Recognize and explain the principle of homeostasis and the use of                  Reasoning and Analysis
feedback loops to control physiological systems in the human body.
4.      Use anatomical knowledge to predict physiological consequences,                    Reasoning and Analysis
and use knowledge of function to predict the features of anatomical
5. Recognize and explain the interrelationships within and between                         Reasoning and Analysis
anatomical and physiological systems of the human body.
6. Synthesize ideas to make a connection between knowledge of anatomy                      Reasoning and Analysis
and physiology and real-world situations, including healthy lifestyle
decisions and homeostatic imbalances.
7.      Demonstrate laboratory procedures used to examine anatomical                       Reasoning and Analysis
structures and evaluate physiological functions of each organ system.
8.      Interpret graphs of anatomical and physiological data.                             Reasoning and Analysis

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