DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS MANUAL THIRD EDITION

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DATABASE MANAGEMENT
             SYSTEMS
    SOLUTIONS MANUAL
        THIRD EDITION



            Raghu Ramakrishnan
           University of Wisconsin
             Madison, WI, USA



               Johannes Gehrke
              Cornell University
              Ithaca, NY, USA



   Jeff Derstadt, Scott Selikoff, and Lin Zhu
              Cornell University
              Ithaca, NY, USA
                                    CONTENTS




PREFACE                                    iii

1   INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE SYSTEMS        1

2   INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE DESIGN         6

3   THE RELATIONAL MODEL                   16

4   RELATIONAL ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS        28

5   SQL: QUERIES, CONSTRAINTS, TRIGGERS    45

6   DATABASE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT       63

7   INTERNET APPLICATIONS                  66

8   OVERVIEW OF STORAGE AND INDEXING       73

9   STORING DATA: DISKS AND FILES          81

10 TREE-STRUCTURED INDEXING                88

11 HASH-BASED INDEXING                    100

12 OVERVIEW OF QUERY EVALUATION           119

13 EXTERNAL SORTING                       126

14 EVALUATION OF RELATIONAL OPERATORS     131




                        i
iiDatabase Management Systems Solutions Manual Third Edition

15 A TYPICAL QUERY OPTIMIZER                          144

16 OVERVIEW OF TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT                 159

17 CONCURRENCY CONTROL                                167

18 CRASH RECOVERY                                     179

19 SCHEMA REFINEMENT AND NORMAL FORMS                 189

20 PHYSICAL DATABASE DESIGN AND TUNING                204

21 SECURITY                                           215
                                                                 PREFACE




    It is not every question that deserves an answer.

                                                            Publius Syrus, 42 B.C.


I hope that most of the questions in this book deserve an answer. The set of questions
is unusually extensive, and is designed to reinforce and deepen students' understanding
of the concepts covered in each chapter. There is a strong emphasis on quantitative
and problem-solving type exercises.

While I wrote some of the solutions myself, most were written originally by students
in the database classes at Wisconsin. I'd like to thank the many students who helped
in developing and checking the solutions to the exercises; this manual would not be
available without their contributions. In alphabetical order: X. Bao, S. Biao, M.
Chakrabarti, C. Chan, W. Chen, N. Cheung, D. Colwell, J. Derstadt, C. Fritz, V.
Ganti, J. Gehrke, G. Glass, V. Gopalakrishnan, M. Higgins, T. Jasmin, M. Krish-
naprasad, Y. Lin, C. Liu, M. Lusignan, H. Modi, S. Narayanan, D. Randolph, A.
Ranganathan, J. Reminga, A. Therber, M. Thomas, Q. Wang, R. Wang, Z. Wang and
J. Yuan. In addition, James Harrington and Martin Reames at Wisconsin and Nina
Tang at Berkeley provided especially detailed feedback.

Several students contributed to each chapter's solutions, and answers were subse-
quently checked by me and by other students. This manual has been in use for several
semesters. I hope that it is now mostly accurate, but I'm sure it still contains er-
rors and omissions. If you are a student and you do not understand a particular
solution, contact your instructor; it may be that you are missing something, but it
may also be that the solution is incorrect! If you discover a bug, please send me mail
(raghu@cs.wisc.edu) and I will update the manual promptly.

The latest version of this solutions manual is distributed freely through the Web; go
to the home page mentioned below to obtain a copy.


For More Information
The home page for this book is at URL:

                                            iii
Database Management Systems Solutions Manual Third Edition

        http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~ dbbook

This page is frequently updated and contains information about the book, past and
current users, and the software. This page also contains a link to all known errors in
the book, the accompanying slides, and the software. Since the solutions manual is
distributed electronically, all known errors are immediately fixed and no list of errors is
maintained. Instructors are advised to visit this site periodically; they can also register
at this site to be notified of important changes by email.
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