UNITED STATES HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

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REGENTS EXAM IN U.S. HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
                                 The University of the State of New York

                         REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION


                      UNITED STATES HISTORY
                        AND GOVERNMENT
                Tuesday, August 17, 2010 -- 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only

        Student Name ______________________________________________________________

        School Name _______________________________________________________________

             Print your name and the name of your school on the lines above. Then turn to the last
        page of this booklet, which is the answer sheet for Part I. Fold the last page along the
        perforations and, slowly and carefully, tear off the answer sheet. Then fill in the heading of
        your answer sheet. Now print your name and the name of your school in the heading of
        each page of your essay booklet.
             This examination has three parts. You are to answer all questions in all parts. Use black
        or dark-blue ink to write your answers.
             Part I contains 50 multiple-choice questions. Record your answers to these questions
        on the separate answer sheet.
             Part II contains one thematic essay question. Write your answer to this question in
        the essay booklet, beginning on page 1.
             Part III is based on several documents:
                   Part III A contains the documents. Each document is followed by one or more
             questions. In the test booklet, write your answer to each question on the lines
             following that question. Be sure to enter your name and the name of your school on
             the first page of this section.
                 Part III B contains one essay question based on the documents. Write your
             answer to this question in the essay booklet, beginning on page 7.
             When you have completed the examination, you must sign the statement printed on
        the Part I answer sheet, indicating that you had no unlawful knowledge of the questions or
        answers prior to the examination and that you have neither given nor received assistance in
        answering any of the questions during the examination. Your answer sheet cannot be
        accepted if you fail to sign this declaration.
            The use of any communications device is strictly prohibited when taking this
        examination. If you use any communications device, no matter how briefly, your
        examination will be invalidated and no score will be calculated for you.


     DO NOT OPEN THIS EXAMINATION BOOKLET UNTIL THE SIGNAL IS GIVEN.
                                   REGENTS EXAM IN U.S. HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
                                                           Part I

                                             Answer all questions in this part.

   Directions (150): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

 1 The presence of which pair of geographic                          5 Shays' Rebellion of 1786 was significant because it
   conditions discouraged the development of a                         (1) showed that the English still had influence
   plantation economy in the New England                                   after the American Revolution
   colonies?                                                           (2) convinced many Americans of the need for a
   (1) wide coastal plain and absence of good harbors                      stronger national government
   (2) rocky soil and short growing season                             (3) revealed the increased threat from rebellious
   (3) numerous rivers and humid climate                                   Native American Indians
   (4) flatlands and lack of forests                                   (4) endangered the lives of many recent
                                                                           immigrants
 2 What was the main cause of the French and
   Indian War (17541763)?                                           6 The Great Compromise reached at the
   (1) disputed land claims in the Ohio River valley                   Constitutional Convention resulted in the
       between the French and the British                              (1) formation of the Supreme Court
   (2) conflicts between American colonists and the                    (2) creation of a bicameral legislature
       French over control of the Great Plains                         (3) development of a two-party system
   (3) taxation of American colonists without                          (4) ban on the importation of enslaved Africans
       representation in Parliament
   (4) violation of trade agreements between                         7 Building support for the ratification of the United
       European nations and Native American                            States Constitution was the purpose of the
       Indians
                                                                       (1) Farewell Address of George Washington
                                                                       (2) Albany Plan of Union
 3 The British government's use of writs of
                                                                       (3) Mayflower Compact
   assistance against American merchants is one
                                                                       (4) Federalist Papers
   reason the Bill of Rights includes protection
   against
                                                                     8 Federalism is best defined as a principle of
   (1) cruel and unusual punishment
                                                                       government that
   (2) self-incrimination
   (3) excessive bail                                                  (1) divides power between the central government
                                                                           and state governments
   (4) unreasonable search and seizure
                                                                       (2) includes a system of checks and balances
                                                                       (3) allows the states to nullify national laws
 4 ". . . Every thing that is right or reasonable pleads
                                                                       (4) places the most power in the hands of the
   for separation. The blood of the slain, the
                                                                           legislative branch
   weeping voice of nature cries, 'TIS TIME TO
   PART. . . ."
                               -- Thomas Paine, Common Sense         9 "All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the
                                                                       House of Representatives; . . ."
     In this quotation, Thomas Paine is trying to                              -- Article 1, Section 7, United States Constitution
     convince the colonists to
                                                                       The main reason the writers of the Constitution
     (1) accept the Proclamation of 1763
                                                                       included this provision was to
     (2) break a treaty with Spain
     (3) declare their independence from England                       (1) give citizens more influence over taxation issues
     (4) dissolve their alliance with France                           (2) assure that all citizens would pay taxes
                                                                       (3) deny presidents the power to veto revenue bills
                                                                       (4) provide the government with a balanced
                                                                           budget
U.S. Hist. & Gov't.Aug. '10                                   [2]
10 The United States Constitution grants the Senate           15 "Compromise Enables Maine and Missouri to Enter
   the power to                                                   the Union"
   (1) impeach governors                                         "California Joins the Union As Part of Compromise
   (2) issue pardons                                              of 1850"
   (3) appoint ambassadors                                       "Kansas-Nebraska Act Establishes Popular
   (4) approve treaties                                           Sovereignty in the Territories"

                                                                  Which issue is most closely associated with these
11 Which statement about the electoral college                    headlines?
   system is accurate?
                                                                  (1) status of slavery in new states
   (1) The number of electoral votes a state receives
                                                                  (2) negotiation of the Oregon Treaty
       is based on its geographic size.
                                                                  (3) expansion of land for reservations
   (2) A candidate can be elected president without
                                                                  (4) influence of political parties on economic
       the majority of the popular vote.
                                                                      development
   (3) Presidential candidates are forced to
       campaign equally in every state.
   (4) The total number of electoral votes has                16 During the 1850s, Irish immigrants were often
       increased with each census.                               discriminated against because they
                                                                 (1) refused to participate in local politics
12 President George Washington set a precedent for               (2) displaced slave labor in the South
   all future presidents by                                      (3) arrived in the United States with great wealth
   (1) appointing a career soldier to be Secretary of            (4) practiced the Roman Catholic religion
        War
   (2) choosing a friend to be Chief Justice of the           17 In his first inaugural address, President Abraham
        Supreme Court                                            Lincoln stated his main goal for the nation was to
   (3) campaigning actively for the office                       (1) use the vote to resolve the conflict over slavery
   (4) creating a cabinet of advisors                            (2) free all slaves in the United States
                                                                 (3) uphold the Dred Scott decision
13 A major reason President Thomas Jefferson                     (4) preserve the Union
   authorized the Lewis and Clark expedition was to
   (1) claim California for the United States                 18 Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses
   (2) explore a route to the Pacific Ocean                      were adopted in Southern States primarily to
   (3) remove British outposts from United States                (1) enforce the terms of the 15th amendment
       land                                                      (2) keep African Americans from exercising their
   (4) establish settlements in the Southwest                        right to vote
                                                                 (3) stop criminals and immigrants from voting
14 Starting with the election of President Andrew                (4) eliminate bribery and corruption at polling
   Jackson (1828), voter participation increased due                 places
   to the
   (1) passage of an amendment ending religious               19 During the late 1800s, major improvements to a
       qualifications for voting                                 nationwide system of trade were made with the
   (2) extension of suffrage to Native American                  (1) construction of a network of canals
       Indians                                                   (2) use of steamboats on rivers
   (3) end of property requirements for voting by                (3) completion of transcontinental railroads
       many states                                               (4) construction of toll roads
   (4) arrival of more immigrants from nations with
       democratic governments



U.S. Hist. & Gov't.Aug. '10                            [3]                                                   [OVER]
     Base your answer to question 20 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.

                                                                Next!


                               Capitol                                                         State
                                                                                               House
                                                         Stan
                                                                 dard Oil




                                 White House




                                                   Source: Udo J. Keppler, Puck, September 7, 1904 (adapted)

               20 The principal message of the cartoon is that the Standard Oil Company
                  (1) used its size to lower the prices of its products
                  (2) protected the nation from foreign competition
                  (3) used its economic power to influence government decisions
                  (4) employed violence to gain an unfair advantage for its workers



21 Jacob Riis, Ida Tarbell, and Margaret Sanger are             24 In the early 20th century, what was the primary
   best known for their efforts to                                 cause of the large-scale migration of African
   (1) create awareness about social problems                      Americans out of the rural South?
   (2) gain support for the women's movement                       (1) supply of new housing in the suburbs
   (3) expand the rights of Native American Indians                (2) opportunities for jobs in northern factories
   (4) win equal treatment for African Americans                   (3) availability of cheap land on the frontier
                                                                   (4) absence of racial discrimination in northern
22 The Progressive movement supported the idea                         states
   that the federal government should
   (1) regulate big business                                    25 The conflict between science and religion in the
   (2) reduce immigration                                          1920s was most clearly shown in the
   (3) build an overseas empire                                    (1) trial of John Scopes
   (4) reduce the number of farms                                  (2) arrest of Sacco and Vanzetti
                                                                   (3) nativist reactions to immigration
23 Which event most influenced President Woodrow                   (4) poetry of the Harlem Renaissance
   Wilson's decision to enter World War I?
   (1) defeat of Russia by Germany                              26 One of the major causes of the stock market crash
   (2) assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand                   of 1929 was
   (3) raids by Mexico on the southwestern United                  (1) excessive buying of stocks on margin
       States                                                      (2) overconsumption of goods and services
   (4) renewal of unrestricted submarine warfare by                (3) failure of international banking systems
       Germany                                                     (4) low prices of stocks and bonds
U.S. Hist. & Gov't.Aug. '10                              [4]
27 Which action did President Franklin D.                                  30 Many of the songs, movies, and books of the
   Roosevelt take that helped organized labor gain                            1930s are similar in that they
   strength during the New Deal?                                              (1) romanticized urban life
   (1) requiring the American Federation of Labor                             (2) relived the bad times of the past
       to admit skilled workers                                               (3) helped people escape from the realities of
   (2) allowing women to work in government                                       everyday life
       agencies                                                               (4) pointed out the mistakes that led to the Great
   (3) signing the National Labor Relations Act                                   Depression
       (Wagner Act)
   (4) selecting John L. Lewis as his Secretary of Labor                   31 What was a major result of the Servicemen's
                                                                              Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill)?
    Base your answers to questions 28 and 29 on the
                                                                              (1) Millions of veterans received a college
cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                                                                                  education.
                                                                              (2) Women kept their factory jobs after World
                                                                                  War II.
                                                                              (3) Jobs were created by the Manhattan Project.
                                                                              (4) Veterans were exempted from gasoline
                                                                                  rationing.

                                                                           32 President Harry Truman changed the United
                                                                              States military after World War II by
                                                                              (1) allowing women to serve in combat roles
                                                                              (2) establishing an all-volunteer army
                                                                              (3) banning racial segregation in the military
                                                                              (4) withdrawing all military forces from Europe

                                                                           33 The United States committed to a Cold War
                                                                              policy of mutual defense when it
                                                                              (1) aided the Nationalists in China
                                                                              (2) established the Eisenhower Doctrine
                                                                              (3) joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
                               Source: Dr. Seuss, PM, May 22, 1941
                                                                                  (NATO)
                                                                              (4) rejected United Nations efforts to halt the
28 Which nations are represented by the two birds                                 development of atomic weapons
   in this cartoon?
   (1) Soviet Union and Great Britain                                      34 Controversies involving Alger Hiss and Julius and
   (2) United States and Soviet Union                                         Ethel Rosenberg reflected the postWorld War II
   (3) Germany and Great Britain                                              concern over
   (4) United States and Germany                                              (1) testing nuclear missiles
                                                                              (2) joining the United Nations
29 Which statement most accurately expresses the                              (3) placing weapons in outer space
   point of view of the cartoonist?                                           (4) spying by communists in the United States
   (1) Isolationism is the safest policy for these
       countries to follow.                                                35 Which development resulted from the
   (2) The United States is ignoring the threat                               construction of the interstate highway system?
       caused by foreign aggression.
                                                                              (1) increased suburbanization
   (3) Trade restrictions are more of a threat than
                                                                              (2) reduced air pollution
       leaders recognize.
                                                                              (3) decreased fuel consumption
   (4) England can defend itself against Axis
       aggression.                                                            (4) growth of long-distance passenger train service

U.S. Hist. & Gov't.Aug. '10                                         [5]                                                  [OVER]
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