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HUMAN RESOURCE
             ELF
               T H
MANAGEMENT TM                                                                                                 EDITION




                                    Gary Dessler
                                    Florida International University




 .I r e i l t l C e J r l 3 . l l   Boston    Columbus     Indianapolis    New York     San Francisco     Upper Saddle River
                                    Amsterdam      Cape Town    Dubai      London     Madrid    Milan     Munich   Paris     Montreal   Toronto
                                    Delhi    Mexico City   Sao Paulo      Sydney    Hong Kong     Seoul    Singapore       Taipei   Tokyo
Contents

       Preface   xxiii
       Acknowledgments              xxvii



       Introduction to Human Resource Management 2
       WHAT IS HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?             4
           What Is Human Resource Management?       4
           Why Is Human Resource Management Important to All Managers? 5
           Line and Staff Aspects of Human Resource Management  6
           Line Managers' Human Resource Duties     6
           Human Resource Manager's Duties 7
           New Approaches to Organizing HR 9
           Cooperative Line and Staff HR Management: An Example  9
           Moving from Line Manager to HR Manager      10
       THE TRENDS SHAPING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT                    10
           Globalization and Competition Trends 11
           Indebtedness ("Leverage") and Deregulation    12
           Technological Trends 12
           Trends in the Nature of Work   13
           Workforce and Demographic Trends 14
           Economic Challenges and Trends     15
       IMPORTANT TRENDS IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT                     16
           The New Human Resource Managers       16
           Strategic Human Resource Management      18
           High-Performance Work Systems 19
             Evidence-Based Human Resource Management   19
        EVIDENCE-BASED HR: Why Should You Be Evidence-Based?   19
             Managing Ethics   20
           HR Certification     20
       THE PLAN OF THIS BOOK 21
           The Basic Themes and Features    21
       CHAPTER CONTENTS OVERVIEW               22
           Part 1: Introduction    22
           Part 2: Recruitment and Placement 22
           Part 3: Training and Development  22
            Part 4: Compensation     23
           Part 5: Employee Relations 23
           The Topics Are Interrelated 23


                                                                                  VII
viii   CONTENTS


                  CHAPTER SECTION SUMMARIES 24
                  DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 24
                  INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACTIVITIES 25
                  EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISE: HELPING "THE DONALD" 25
                  APPLICATION CASE: JACK NELSON'S PROBLEM 26
                  CONTINUING CASE: CARTER CLEANING COMPANY 26
                  KEY TERMS 27
                  ENDNOTES 27


                  Equal Opportunity and the Law 30
                  EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY 1964-1991                       32
                      Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act    32                                            \
                      Executive Orders      32                                                                i
                      Equal Pay Act of 1963       33                                                          i
                      Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967        33                                  |
                      Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973      33                                            j
                      Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978        34    .                                      j
                      Federal Agency Guidelines        34                                                      i
                      Early Court Decisions Regarding Equal Employment Opportunity  34                         !
                  EQUAL E M P L O Y M E N T O P P O R T U N I T Y 1990-91-PRESENT  35                          |
                      The Civil Rights Act of 1991      35
                      The Americans with Disabilities Act      36
                      Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA)  39
                      State and Local Equal Employment Opportunity Laws      39                                I
                      Sexual Harassment       39                                                               j
                   MANAGING THE N E W WORKFORCE: Enforcing Equal Employment Laws with International           !
                    Employees 45                                                                               '
                  DEFENSES AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ALLEGATIONS                        46
                                                                                                               ;
                       The Central Role of Adverse Impact     46
                       Bona Fide Occupational Qualification     48                                             :
                       Business Necessity    49
                       Other Considerations in Discriminatory Practice Defenses     50
                  ILLUSTRATIVE DISCRIMINATORY EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES                             50
                       A Note on What You Can and Cannot Do        50
                       Recruitment    50
                       Selection Standards   51
                       Sample Discriminatory Promotion, Transfer, and Layoff Practices    52
                       What the Supervisor Should Keep in Mind      52
                  THE EEOC ENFORCEMENT PROCESS                   53
                       Voluntary Mediation    54
                       Mandatory Arbitration of Discrimination Claims    55                                    ;
                  DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS                              56
                   EVIDENCE-BASED HR: Will Workforce Diversity Cause Problems for Our Company?          57
                        Managing Diversity      57                                                             \
                        Workforce Diversity in Practice   58                                                    i
                        Equal Employment Opportunity Versus Affirmative Action      60                         !
                        Steps in an Affirmative Action Program  60
                        Improving Productivity Through HRIS: Measuring Diversity    61                        <
                        Reverse Discrimination 61
                  CHAPTER SECTION SUMMARIES 62
                  DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 63
                  INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACTIVITIES 63
                  EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISE: "SPACE CADET" OR VICTIM? 63
                  APPLICATION CASE: A CASE OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION? 64
                  CONTINUING CASE: CARTER CLEANING COMPANY 65
                  KEY TERMS 65                                                                                     i
                  ENDNOTES 66
                                                                                                          CONTENTS       ix



          The Manager's Role in Strategic Human Resource Management 70
          WHY STRATEGIC PLANNING IS IMPORTANT TO ALL MANAGERS                                       72
               The Hierarchy of Goals           72
          FUNDAMENTALS OF MANAGEMENT PLANNING                                      73
               The Planning Process         73
               Putting Together the Business Plan                 73
                How Managers Set Objectives              75
          THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS                                   77
               Introduction     78
                Improving Productivity Through HRIS: Using Computerized Business Planning Software                  81
               Types of Strategies         81
               The Top Manager's Role in Strategic Planning                 83
                Departmental Managers' Strategic Planning Roles                   84
           MANAGING THE NEW WORKFORCE: Dealing with Offshoring                          85
          STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT                                      86
               Human Resource Strategies and Policies                  87
           MANAGING HR IN CHALLENGING TIMES: Adjusting HR Policies to Challenging Times                       88
               Strategic HR in Action: Improving Mergers and Acquisitions                89
               Strategic Human Resource Management Tools                     90
          HR APPs 4 U: Mobile Access to Strategy Maps                       91
               Translating Strategy into Human Resource Policies and Practices: Einstein Medical 
                  Example       92
          BUILDING YOUR OWN HIGH-PERFORMANCE WORK SYSTEM                                      93
               What Are High-Performance Work Systems?                      93
                High-Performance Human Resource Policies and Practices                  94
               The Line Manager's Role in Building a High-Performance Work System              95
          CHAPTER SECTION SUMMARIES                    96
          DISCUSSION QUESTIONS              96
          INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACTIVITIES                     97
          EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISE: DEVELOPING AN HR STRATEGY FOR STARBUCKS                                 97
          APPLICATION CASE: SIEMENS BUILDS A STRATEGY-ORIENTED HR SYSTEM                             98
          CONTINUING CASE: THE CARTER CLEANING COMPANY: THE HIGH-PERFORMANCE
           WORK SYSTEM          98
          KEY TERMS      99
          TRANSLATING STRATEGY INTO HR POLICIES & PRACTICES CASE: THE HOTEL
            PARIS CASE     99
          APPENDIX FOR CHAPTER 3: Tools for Evidence-Based Human Resource Management                          103
          PART I VIDEO CASES APPENDIX                 110
          ENDNOTES       111




      4   Job Analysis 114
          THE BASICS OF JOB ANALYSIS                        116
               Uses of Job Analysis Information              116
               Steps in Job Analysis        117
               Job Analysis Guidelines           119
          METHODS FOR COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION                                     119
               The Interview         119                               .
               Questionnaires        123
               Observation      123
;:              Participant Diary/Logs          126
fj.            Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques                126
|v,            Internet-Based Job Analysis             128
X   CONTENTS


               WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS                  130
                    Job Identification   130
                    Job Summary 132
                    Relationships    133
                    Responsibilities and Duties 133
                    Standards of Performance and Working Conditions          134
                    Duty: Accurately Posting Accounts Payable 135
                MANAGING THE N E W WORKFORCE: Writing J o b Descriptions That Comply with the ADA   135
                     Duty: Meeting Daily Production Schedule      136
                     Using the Internet for Writing Job Descriptions  136
               WRITING JOB SPECIFICATIONS                 139
                     Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel     140
                     Specifications Based on Judgment       140
                      Job Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis 141
               J O B ANALYSIS IN A WORKER-EMPOWERED WORLD                  141
                      From Specialized to Enriched Jobs 142
                      Competency-Based Job Analysis 143
                      How to Write Job Competencies-Based Job Descriptions  144
                      In Summary: Why Competency Analysis?         144
               CHAPTER SECTION SUMMARIES 145
               DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 145
               INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACTIVITIES 146
               EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISE: THE INSTRUCTOR'S JOB DESCRIPTION 146
               APPLICATION CASE: TROPICAL STORM WILMA 146
               CONTINUING CASE: CARTER CLEANING COMPANY 147
               TRANSLATING STRATEGY INTO HR POLICIES & PRACTICES CASE: THE HOTEL
                  PARIS CASE 147
               KEY TERMS 148
               ENDNOTES 148


               Personnel Planning and Recruiting 150
               THE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS                          152
               PLANNING AND FORECASTING 152
                     Forecasting Personnel Needs      153
                     Forecasting the Supply of Inside Candidates       155
                    Forecasting the Supply of Outside Candidates 156
               THE NEED FOR EFFECTIVE RECRUITING 157
                    Why Recruiting Is Important 157
                    What Makes Effective Recruiting a Challenge?       157
                    Organizing How You Recruit 158
                    The Recruiting Yield Pyramid 158
               INTERNAL SOURCES OF CANDIDATES                    159
                     Using Internal Sources: Pros and Cons 159
                     Finding Internal Candidates 159
                     Rehiring 159
                     Succession Planning 160
                     Improving Productivity Through HRIS: Succession Planning Systems   160
               OUTSIDE SOURCES OF CANDIDATES                    160
                     Recruiting via the Internet   161
               HR APPs 4 U: Posting and Accessing Job Openings               162
                MANAGING H R IN CHALLENGING TIMES: Reducing Recruitment Costs          164
                    Advertising 165
                    Employment Agencies 166
                    Temp Agencies and Alternative Staffing      167
                    Offshoring and Outsourcing Jobs 169
                    Executive Recruiters 170
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