COMP PACKET- Physiological or Biological Basis of Behavior

Text Preview:
KNOWLEDGE COMPETENCY EXAM
      REVIEW PACKET


       Physiological or
 Biological Basis of Behavior
   (Includes Sensation and Perception)




              PART 1 OF 1
                                                                     PHYSIOLOGICAL OR BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR                           2

                                                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

The table of contents for this packet corresponds closely to the outline prepared by the
faculty. The most recent version of that outline and the recommended readings for it may be
obtained via the link in the upper portion of main COMPS web page in the portal. Please DO NOT
use the outline on the OLD comps web page at http://www2.alliant.edu/sandiego/comps/. The
material on that site is no longer current."


ABOUT THE COMPS AND THIS STUDY PACKET .................................................................................... 6
RECOMMENDED READING LIST: .......................................................................................................... 8
  I) BASIC TERMINOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM .................................. 9
    A)     Organization structure ................................................................................................... 9
       1) Central nervous system (CNS) ....................................................................................... 9
         a) Lobes ........................................................................................................................... 9
         b) Gross anatomy .......................................................................................................... 11
         a) Ventricles .................................................................................................................. 12
       2) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) ................................................................................ 13
         a) Autonomic ................................................................................................................. 13
           i) Sympathetic........................................................................................................... 13
           ii) Parasympathetic ................................................................................................... 14
         b) Spinal nerves ............................................................................................................. 14
         c) Cranial nerves ........................................................................................................... 14
    B)     Forebrain ...................................................................................................................... 16
       1) Telencephalon ............................................................................................................... 16
         a) Cerebral cortex ......................................................................................................... 16
           i) Sulci (singular = sulcus) ........................................................................................ 16
           ii) Fissures .................................................................................................................. 16
           iii)  Gyri (singular = gyrus) ..................................................................................... 16
         b) Limbic system. .......................................................................................................... 17
           i) Hippocampus ........................................................................................................ 17
           ii) Amygdala .............................................................................................................. 17
       2) Diencephalon ................................................................................................................ 18
         a) Thalamus................................................................................................................... 18
         b) Hypothalamus-.......................................................................................................... 18
    C)     Midbrain ....................................................................................................................... 19
       1) Mesencephalon ............................................................................................................. 19
         a) Tectum- (Roof) .......................................................................................................... 19
         b) Tegmentum- (Floor) ................................................................................................. 19
         c) Basal penduculli ........................................................................................................ 19
       2) Reticular formation ...................................................................................................... 19
    D)     Hindbrain...................................................................................................................... 20
       1) Metencephalon.............................................................................................................. 20
         a) Pons- .......................................................................................................................... 20
         b) Cerebellum- .............................................................................................................. 20
       2) Myelencephalon ............................................................................................................ 20
         a) Medulla ..................................................................................................................... 20
    E)     Anatomical directions ................................................................................................... 22

                                                                                                                               January 2006
                                                                       PHYSIOLOGICAL OR BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR                                  3

     1) Afferent ......................................................................................................................... 22
     2) Efferent ......................................................................................................................... 22
     3) Anterior or rostral ........................................................................................................ 22
     4) Posterior or caudal ....................................................................................................... 22
     5) Ventral .......................................................................................................................... 22
     6) Dorsal ............................................................................................................................ 22
     7) Sagittal .......................................................................................................................... 22
     8) Coronal ......................................................................................................................... 22
     9) Axial or horizontal ........................................................................................................ 22
     10)   Axial or horizontal .................................................................................................... 22
   F) Spinal cord ........................................................................................................................ 22
     1) Dorsal horn ................................................................................................................... 22
     2) Ventral horn ................................................................................................................. 22
II)    NEURON PHYSIOLOGY ....................................................................................................... 23
   A)    Structure of a neuron ................................................................................................... 23
   .................................................................................................................................................. 24
   B)         Axonal connections ....................................................................................................... 26
   C)         Neurotransmitters (e.g., acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, norepinephrine) .............. 26
   D)         Synaptic transmission ................................................................................................... 28
   E)         Sodium-potassium pump .............................................................................................. 30
   F) Action and graded potentials ........................................................................................... 30
   G)         Recovery cycles ............................................................................................................. 30
III)      INTRODUCTION TO THE SENSES ......................................................................................... 30
   A)         Vision ............................................................................................................................ 30
      1) Physics of light .............................................................................................................. 30
      2) Structure of the eye ...................................................................................................... 31
      3) Visual pathways ............................................................................................................ 33
          a. Photoreceptors .......................................................................................................... 34
          b. Retina ........................................................................................................................ 35
          c. The Lateral Geniculate and Superior Colliculus ..................................................... 37
          d. Occipital Lobe; Visual cortical areas ....................................................................... 38
      4) Dark adaptation, lateral inhibition, and feature detection ......................................... 38
      5) Depth and color encoding ............................................................................................. 39
   B)         Audition ........................................................................................................................ 39
      1) Physics of sound ............................................................................................................ 39
      2) Structure of the ear ...................................................................................................... 41
      3) Auditory pathways ....................................................................................................... 43
          a) Transduction in the cochlea ..................................................................................... 44
          b) Medial geniculate and inferior colliculi ................................................................... 44
          c) Temporal lobe; auditory cortical areas.................................................................... 46
      4) Locating sounds in space .............................................................................................. 46
   C)         Somatonsensation ......................................................................................................... 48
      1) The skin and its receptive organs ................................................................................. 48
      2) Touch, temperature, and pain...................................................................................... 49
      3) Somatosensory pathways.............................................................................................. 51
   D)         Chemical senses ............................................................................................................ 53
      1) Olfaction ....................................................................................................................... 54
      2) Taste .............................................................................................................................. 55

                                                                                                                                       January 2006
                                                                   PHYSIOLOGICAL OR BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR                              4

   E)    Psychophysics ............................................................................................................... 55
        1)
         Steven's Law, Fechner's Law....................................................................................... 55
        2)
         Signal Detection Theory and ROC curves ................................................................... 56
II)    MOVEMENT AND ACTION .................................................................................................. 57
   A)    Muscles .......................................................................................................................... 57
     1) Skeletal muscle.............................................................................................................. 57
     2) Smooth muscle .............................................................................................................. 57
     3) Cardiac muscle ............................................................................................................. 57
   B)    Reflexive control of movement ..................................................................................... 57
   C)    Central control of movement; motor pathways .......................................................... 58
   D)    Motor dysfunctions ....................................................................................................... 59
     1) Myasthenia gravis ......................................................................................................... 59
     2) Parkinson's disease ....................................................................................................... 59
     3) Huntington's chorea ..................................................................................................... 59
     4) Apraxias, akinesia......................................................................................................... 59
III)   EMOTIONS AND STRESS...................................................................................................... 59
   A)    Physiology of Emotions ................................................................................................ 59
     1) Sympathetic and parasympathetic system................................................................... 59
         Flight or fight. Think stress response, relaxing, vagal brake, etc. ................................... 59
     2) Endocrine system, hypothalamic, pituitary, adrenal .................................................. 59
     3) Psychophysiology of emotion ....................................................................................... 60
     4) Theories of emotion: James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Schachter ................................... 61
   B)    Aggression ..................................................................................................................... 61
     1) Limbic system and aggression: the amygdala ............................................................. 61
     2) Neurotransmitters and aggression ............................................................................... 62
     3) Other brain centers and aggression ............................................................................. 62
   C)    Stress ............................................................................................................................. 62
     1) Physiology of the stress response ................................................................................. 62
     2) Stress and health........................................................................................................... 62
     3) Stress and the immune system ..................................................................................... 62
     4) Reward and pleasure .................................................................................................... 62
IV)    INGESTIVE BEHAVIORS ...................................................................................................... 63
   A)    Drinking ........................................................................................................................ 63
     1) Mechanisms of thirst .................................................................................................... 63
     2) Neural control of thirst and salt appetite..................................................................... 64
     3) Mechanisms of satiety................................................................................................... 64
   B)    Eating ............................................................................................................................ 64
     1) Metabolism and fat regulation ..................................................................................... 64
     2) Brain mechanisms ........................................................................................................ 64
     3) Eating disorders ............................................................................................................ 64
       b) Obesity ...................................................................................................................... 64
       c) Anorexia and bulimia ............................................................................................... 65
V)     SEXUAL BEHAVIOR ............................................................................................................ 65
   A)    Sex differences .............................................................................................................. 65
     1) Genetic .......................................................................................................................... 65
     2) Morphological ............................................................................................................... 65
     3) Physiological ................................................................................................................. 65
     4) Behavioral ..................................................................................................................... 65
   B)    Sexual Development ..................................................................................................... 66
                                                                                                                                January 2006
                                                                PHYSIOLOGICAL OR BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR                              5

   1) Sexual differentiation of reproductive organs ............................................................. 66
   2) Sexual differentiation of gonadotrophic release .......................................................... 66
   3) Sexual differentiation of brain sexual behavior .......................................................... 66
C)    Biological bases of adult sexual behavior..................................................................... 66
   1) Physiology of arousal .................................................................................................... 66
   2) Neurotransmitters and sexual behavior ...................................................................... 66
   3) Influence of drugs ......................................................................................................... 66
A)    Circadian rhythms........................................................................................................ 67
   1) Physiological changes ................................................................................................... 67
   2) Behavioral changes ....................................................................................................... 67
   3) Stress and changes ........................................................................................................ 67
   4) Underlying mechanisms ............................................................................................... 67
   5) Seasonal affective disorders ......................................................................................... 67
B)    Sleep cycles.................................................................................................................... 67
   1) Basic sleep physiology: Sleep stages I-IV, REM .......................................................... 67
   2) Individual differences ................................................................................................... 68
   3) Sleep disorders .............................................................................................................. 68
   4) Sleep deprivation effects ............................................................................................... 69
   5) Sleep functions, spindles, and K-complexes................................................................. 69
   6) REM sleep ..................................................................................................................... 69
B)    Neural mechanisms of arousal states ........................................................................... 69
   1) Reticular formation ...................................................................................................... 69
   2) The raphe nucleus, serotonin, and sleep ...................................................................... 69
   3) The locus coeruleus and waking .................................................................................. 69
   4) Sleep inducting chemicals............................................................................................. 69
A)    Brain development........................................................................................................ 70
B)    Basic genetics ................................................................................................................ 70
C)    Hormonal development ................................................................................................ 70
D)    Environmental contributions to development ............................................................. 70
   1) Sensitive/critical periods ............................................................................................... 70
   2) Enrichment vs. Deprivation ......................................................................................... 70
A)    Mechanisms of synaptic plasticity................................................................................ 71
   1) Long-term potentiation ................................................................................................ 71
   2) NMDA receptors........................................................................................................... 71
B)    Classical and operant conditioning and their brain mechanisms ............................... 71
C)    Implicit and explicit memory ....................................................................................... 72
D)    Brain memory systems: Human and animal models ................................................... 72
E)    Hippocampus and related structures: Anatomy and function ................................... 73
F) Anterograde and retrograde amnesia; amnestic syndromes .......................................... 73
A)    Association cortex ......................................................................................................... 73
B)    Evoked potentials (event-related potentials) ............................................................... 74
   1) Attention ....................................................................................................................... 74
   2) Contingent negative variation (CNV) .......................................................................... 74
   3) Decision making ............................................................................................................ 74
   4) Brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) ........................................................... 74
   5) P300 ............................................................................................................................... 74
C)    Hemispheric specialization ........................................................................................... 74
   1) Anatomy: corpus callosum and the split-brain ........................................................... 74
   2) Cognitive systems and cerebral hemispheres .............................................................. 74
                                                                                                                             January 2006
Download Link:
Share Link: Forum Link:

More on Science & Technology

  • Picture: Math Boxes - Everyday Math - Login

    Math Boxes – Everyday Math – Login

    File Size: 1,819.53 KB, Pages: 5, Views: 1,256,696 views

    Math Boxes Objectives To introduce My Reference Book; and to introduce the t Math Boxes routine. www.everydaymathonline.com ePresentations eToolkit Algorithms EM Facts Family Assessment Common Curriculum Interactive Practice Workshop Letters Management Core State Focal Points Teacher's GameTM Standards Lesson Guide Teaching the Lesson Ongoing Learning …
  • Picture: A Study of the Relationship Between Students Anxiety and

    A Study of the Relationship Between Students Anxiety and

    File Size: 72.91 KB, Pages: 7, Views: 1,234,031 views

    US-China Education Review B 4 (2011) 579-585 Earlier title: US-China Education Review, ISSN 1548-6613 A Study of the Relationship Between Students' Anxiety and Test Performance on State-Mandated Assessments Rosalinda Hernandez, Velma Menchaca, Jeffery Huerta University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, USA This study examined whether …
  • Picture: HIGH-EFFICIENCY UPFLOW FURNACE INSTALLER'S  - Crown Boiler

    HIGH-EFFICIENCY UPFLOW FURNACE INSTALLER’S – Crown Boiler

    File Size: 534.22 KB, Pages: 27, Views: 1,225,394 views

    HIGH-EFFICIENCY UPFLOW FURNACE INSTALLER'S INFORMATION MANUAL D ES IG N CE R TI F I ED ATTENTION, INSTALLER! After installing the ATTENTION, USER! Your furnace installer should furnace, show the user how to turn off gas and electricity to give you the documents listed on …
  • Picture: Raven/Johnson Biology 8e Chapter 12 1.

    Raven/Johnson Biology 8e Chapter 12 1.

    File Size: 99.62 KB, Pages: 9, Views: 79,713 views

    Raven/Johnson Biology 8e Chapter 12 1. A true-breeding plant is one that-- a. produces offspring that are different from the parent b. forms hybrid offspring through cross-pollination c. produces offspring that are always the same as the parent d. can only reproduce with itself The …
  • Picture: Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 1 U1-Full Chapter

    Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 1 U1-Full Chapter

    File Size: 3,860.88 KB, Pages: 188, Views: 95,874 views

    Math Skills for Business- Full Chapters 1 U1-Full Chapter- Algebra Chapter3 Introduction to Algebra 3.1 What is Algebra? Algebra is generalized arithmetic operations that use letters of the alphabet to represent known or unknown quantities. We can use y to represent a company's profit or …

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *