Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Marieb/Hoehn)

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Figure 6.1

Match the bone types A through E to the numbers on Figure 6.1.

A.   Long
B.   Short
C.   Flat
D.   Irregular
E.   Sesamoid




Figure 6.2

Match the letters A through D to questions 8 through 11.

8) Compact bone.                                            9) Location of the epiphyseal line.

10) Area where yellow marrow is found.                     11) Area with articular cartilage.




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Match the fractures A through D to questions 12 through 14.

A) Comminuted
B) Spiral
C) Greenstick

12) An incomplete fracture or cracking of the bone without actual separation of the parts.
Common in children.

13) Bone fragments into many pieces.

14) Common sports fracture resulting from a twisting force.

Match the letters A through E to questions 15 through 19.

A) Chondrocytes
B) Appositional growth
C) Epiphyseal line
D) Diaphysis
E) Epiphyseal plate

15) The cells responsible for the early stages of endochondral ossification.

16) The growth pattern of bone in which matrix is laid down on the surface.

17) The area of long bones where cartilage cells are replaced by bone cells.

18) The appearance of this structure signals the end of bone growth.

19) Area where bone longitudinal growth takes place.


Multiple-Choice Questions:
1) The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is
adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
A) spongy bone                                                       B) irregular bone
C) compact bone                                                      D) trabecular bone

2) Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.
A) fat                                                         B) blood-forming cells
C) elastic tissue                                              D) Sharpey's fibers

3) The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.
A) osteocyte                                                        B) osteoblast
C) osteoclast                                                       D) chondrocyte

4) What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
A) elastic connective tissue                                       B) fibrocartilage
C) proper dense fibrous connective tissue                          D) hyaline cartilage

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5) What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?
A) inadequate calcification of bone                          B) decreased osteoclast activity
C) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage D) increased osteoclast activity

6) A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.
A) epiphysis                                                       B) metaphysis
C) diaphysis                                                       D) articular cartilage

7) Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates a projection that helps to form
joints?
A) meatus                                                         B) ramus
C) foramen                                                        D) fossa
E) epicondyle

8) Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ________.
A) drinking fluoridated water                              B) decreasing weight-bearing exercise
C) increasing dietary vitamin C                            D) decreasing exposure to the sun

9) Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood,
as well as shaping the articular surfaces?
A) lacunae                                                          B) Haversian system
C) epiphyseal plate                                                 D) epiphyseal line

10) Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?
A) support                                                          B) storage of minerals
C) production of blood cells (hematopoiesis)                        D) communication

11) What is the structural unit of compact bone?
A) osseous matrix                                                   B) spongy bone
C) lamellar bone                                                    D) the osteon

12) Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner
(osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.
A) cartilage and compact bone                                   B) marrow and osteons
C) osteoblasts and osteoclasts                                  D) chondrocytes and osteocytes

13) The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ____.
A) Volkmann's canals                                   B) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage
C) perforating (Sharpey's) fibers                      D) the struts of bone known as spicules

14) The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of
________.
A) cartilage and interstitial lamellae                        B) osteoclasts and osteoblasts
C) yellow marrow and spicules                                 D) blood vessels and nerve fibers

15) What are the small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live called?
A) lacunae                                                         B) Volkmann's canals
C) Haversian canals                                                D) trabeculae

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16) For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?
A) A bone collar forms around the cartilage model.
B) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.
C) The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate.
D) A medullary cavity forms.

17) The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.
A) closing of the epiphyseal plate                               B) appositional growth
C) long bones reaching adult length and width                    D) concentric growth

18) Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the
bloodstream?
A) calcitonin                                                    B) thyroxine
C) parathyroid hormone                                           D) estrogen

19) Cranial bones develop ________.
A) from cartilage models                                           B) within fibrous membranes
C) from a tendon                                                   D) within osseous membranes

20) Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood
calcium levels?
A) pineal gland                                                 B) thyroid
C) parathyroid                                                  D) spleen

21) In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.
A) by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis                    B) from the edges inward
C) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis                 D) in a circular fashion

22) Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ________.
A) osteons                                                   B) lamellar bone
C) trabeculae                                                D) osseous lamellae

23) Osteogenesis is the process of ________.
A) making a cartilage model of the fetal bone             B) bone destruction to liberate calcium
C) making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage         D) bone formation

24) In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What
might be the cause?
A) overproduction of thyroid hormone            B) elevated levels of sex hormones
C) too much vitamin D in the diet               D) osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity

Short Answer Questions:
1) Several hormones control the remodeling of bones. Which two respond to changing blood
calcium levels?
2) Why are the bones of young children much more flexible than those of the elderly?
3) Bones appear to be lifeless structures. Does bone material renew itself?
4) Compare the function of the organic materials in the bone matrix with the function of the
inorganic materials in the matrix.
                                                    4
5) What are the differences between the diaphysis and the epiphyses of long bones?
6) Describe how oxygen is carried from outside a bone to an individual osteocyte.
7) How is the beginning of intramembraneous ossification different from endochondral
ossification?
8) Alice and James adopted a 3-year-old child from a developing country. They noticed that her
legs were bowed and there were some deformities in her cranial and pelvic bones. They
brought her to a physician for a diagnosis. What was the diagnosis, and what was the treatment
for the disorder?
9) Emily, a 64-year-old obese woman, was brought to the hospital suffering pain in her legs, and
an X ray revealed that she had a simple fracture in her right femur and a crack in her left tibia.
Other tests revealed that her bones were brittle and porous. What might have happened to
Emily, and what advice would she have been given by the physician?
10) People who live in the north should take supplemental calcium with vitamin D. Explain
why.




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