AP World History 2009 Free-Response Questions

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AP World History
                                2009 Free-Response Questions




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                   2009 AP WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS


                                                WORLD HISTORY
                                                      SECTION II

Note: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era).
These labels correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini), which are used in some world history
textbooks.
                                                       Part A
                                      (Suggested writing time--40 minutes)
                                        Percent of Section II score--33 1/3

Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-9. (The documents have been
edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the Section II free-response booklet.

This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents.

Write an essay that:

  x Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents.
  x Uses all of the documents.
  x Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply
    summarize the documents individually.
  x Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors' points of view.
  x Identifies and explains the need for at least one additional type of document.

You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents.


             1. Using the documents, analyze African actions and reactions in response to the
                European Scramble for Africa. Identify an additional type of document and explain
                how it would help in assessing African actions and reactions.
                 Historical Background: In the three decades after the Berlin Conference on Africa
                 (18841885), European powers occupied and colonized areas in Africa, a process later
                 termed the Scramble for Africa.




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      2009 AP WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS


                                          Document 1

Source: Royal Niger Company, commissioned by the British government to administer
and develop the Niger River delta and surrounding areas, standard form signed by multiple
African rulers, 1886.

We, the undersigned Chiefs of ___________, with the view to the bettering of our country
and people, do this day cede to the Royal Niger Company, forever, the whole of our
territory extending __________.

We pledge ourselves not to enter into any war with other tribes without the sanction of the
said Royal Niger Company. . . . The said Royal Niger Company bind themselves not to
interfere with any of the native laws or customs of the country, consistently with the
maintenance of order and good government.

The said Royal Niger Company agree to pay native owners of land a reasonable amount
for any portion they may require. . . . and to pay the said Chiefs __________ measures
native value.

The ________ chiefs . . . affixed their marks of their own free will and consent. . . .

Done in triplicate at __________, this ____________ day, of __________, 188____.


                                          Document 2

Source: Prempeh I, Ashanti leader, response to a British offer of protectorate status,
West Africa, 1891.

The suggestion that Ashanti in its present state should come and enjoy the protection
of Her Majesty the Queen of England and Empress of India is a matter of very serious
consideration. I am pleased to announce that we have arrived at the conclusion that my
kingdom of Ashanti will never commit itself to any such policy. Ashanti must remain
as of old and at the same time remain friendly with all White men.




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      2009 AP WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS


                                          Document 3

Source: Menelik II, emperor of Ethiopia, letter to Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy,
and Russia, 1891.
I have no intention at all of being an indifferent spectator, if the distant Powers hold onto
the idea of dividing up Africa. For the past fourteen centuries Ethiopia has been an island
of Christians in a sea of Pagans.

Since the All-Powerful has protected Ethiopia up until now, I am hopeful that He will
keep and enlarge it also in the future, and I do not think for a moment that He will divide
Ethiopia among the distant Powers. In the past, the boundary of Ethiopia was the sea.
Without our use of force and without the aid of the Christians, our boundary on the sea fell
into the hands of the Muslims. Today we do not pretend to be able to recover our seacoast
by force; but we hope that the Christian Powers, advised by our Savior, Jesus Christ, will
restore our seacoast boundary to us, or give us at least a few ports along the coast.


                                          Document 4

Source: Ndansi Kumalo, African veteran of the Ndebele Rebellion against British
advances in southern Africa, 1896.

So we surrendered to the White people and were told to go back to our homes and live
our usual lives and attend to our crops. We were treated like slaves. They came and were
overbearing. We were ordered to carry their clothes and bundles. They harmed our wives
and our daughters. How the rebellion started I do not know; there was no organization, it
was like a fire that suddenly flames up. I had an old gun. They--the White men --fought
us with big guns, machine guns, and rifles. Many of our people were killed in this fight:
I saw four of my cousins shot. We made many charges but each time we were defeated.
But for the White men's machine guns, it would have been different.




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         2009 AP WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS


                                            Document 5

Source: Ethiopian painting of the Battle of Adowa, in which the Ethiopians were victorious
over Italian troops, 1896.




                                                                        Image #: 322202 Photo by Boltin
                                                                        American Museum of Natural History




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