## Mathematics Curriculum Salem City Schools Grade 8

Text Preview:
```Mathematics Curriculum

Salem City Schools

Revised Summer 2006
Time Allotted                      Topic                      SOL             Chapter(s)
First Six Weeks   Organizing Data                          8.1, 8.3, 8.12    Chapters 1, 2,
Measures of Central Tendency                               3, 7 and 10
Line Plots
Stem and Leaf Diagrams
Box and Whisker Plots
Bar and Line Graphs
Scatter Plots
Integer Operations
Absolute Value
Second Six        Order of Operations                      8.1, 8.4, 8.15,   Chapters 1, 3,
Weeks             Coordinate System                        8.17              4, 5, 6, 8, and
Exponential Notation                                       10
Scientific Notation
Formulas
Variable and Algebraic Expressions
One and Two Step Equations
Inequalities
Third Six Weeks   One and Two Step Equation/Inequalities   8.3, 8.14,        Chapters 4, 5,
Functions                                8.15, 8.16,       6, 7, and 8
Relations                                8.17, 8.18
Ratio and Proportions
Unit Rates
Scale Drawings

Fourth Six        Decimals and Percents                    8.1, 8.2, 8.5,    Chapters 1, 3,
Weeks             Number Sense                             8.10              9, and 10
Rational and Real Numbers
Probability
Perfect Squares
Square Roots
Pythagorean Theorem
Fifth Six Weeks   Geometry                                 8.6, 8.7, 8.8,    Chapters 12
Area/Perimeter                           8.9
Surface Area
Volume
Three Dimensional
Transformations
Sixth Six Weeks   More Functions                           8.11, 8.13,      Chapters 6 and
Probability                              8.14, 8.18, (all 8
Matrices                                 for SOL
Polynomials                              Review)
SOL Review

2                                   Revised Summer 2006
These documents reflect alignment of the Mathematics curriculum in the Salem City Schools with
the Standards of Learning for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Efforts have been made to include
suggestions for:

Use of manipulatives for classroom instruction.
Applying technology to accomplish the goals of a standard.
Integration of mathematics instruction with other curricular areas.
Classroom assessments.

The format of these materials is similar to Mathematics Standards of Learning Curriculum
Framework published by the Virginia Department of Education in 2002. Unit/Topic/Strand refers to the six
basic learning strands adopted by Virginia in support of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
Standards adopted in 1989. The strands are synonymous with the Blueprint Categories used for reporting
purposes on Standard of Learning tests grades 3 and 5. These strands/categories are:

Number and Number Sense
Computation and Estimation
Measurement
Geometry
Probability and Statistics
Patterns, Functions and Algebra

Each objective has a recommended implementation schedule. Teacher notes and instructional
pedagogy that are implied in the objective are included along with Essential Understandings, and student
outcomes are listed under Essential Knowledge Skills. Notes for enrichment and extensions, particularly to
other curricular areas, are included under Essential Understandings. The cover page for each grade level is
a suggested teaching sequence for the standards. The standards are listed sequentially within the curriculum
document. The instructor is reminded that the standards are implemented with close attention given to
review or spiraling to former lessons. Math extensions are given by number (no SOL prefix).

The implementation of mathematics standards does not rest entirely on the mathematics content
addressed at a grade level. Concepts become part of a student's knowledge when developed with the aid of
real life applications taken from other curricular areas. The use of technology and hence the implementation
of Computer/Technology Standards (C/T) enables access to and manipulation of data from all resources.

Sample assessments are placed under Student Check for Understanding. Efforts have been made to
use multiple choice formats to support student practice for Standards of Learning tests. There are
suggestions for alternative assessments. Resources include reference to the student text and other classroom
resources that a teacher may have at their disposal.

The intent of these materials is to provide a teacher guide for a basic mathematics course for each
grade in levels K-8. Suggestions for extending the mathematics or enriching the mathematics content are
directed to the teacher who has students that are prepared to do more advanced work. Extensions and
Connections were developed with the cooperation of the gifted program coordinator. Some of these
additions may provide an alternative challenge for students who have demonstrated mastery of the material.
Pretesting is recommended for assessing competence in a standard. Each standard must be addressed either
as a new topic or pretested to assure concept mastery required by the Standards of Learning.

3                                  Revised Summer 2006
STANDARD 8.1                                           STRAND: NUMBER AND NUMBER SENSE                                                          GRADE LEVEL 8

8.1          The student will
a) simplify numerical expressions involving positive exponents, using rational numbers, order of operations, and properties of
operations with real numbers;
b) recognize, represent, compare, and order rational numbers expressed in scientific notation; and
c) compare and order decimals, fractions, percents, and numbers written in scientific notation.

Time Allotted:           2 weeks
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD                           ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS                            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
(Teacher Notes)

Expression is a word used to designate any            All students should                                The student will use problem solving, mathematical
symbolic mathematical phrase that may contain                                                            communication, mathematical reasoning, connections, and
Understand that any real number can be           representations to
numbers and/or variables. Expressions do not
shown on a number line.
contain an equal sign.
Simplify numerical expressions containing exponents
Understand that integers, positive and
A numerical expression contains only numbers                                                               where the base is a rational number and the exponent is a
negative fractions, and positive and negative      positive whole number, using the order of operations and
and the operations on those numbers.
decimals are rational numbers.                     properties of operations with real numbers.
Expressions are simplified using the order of
Understand that an expression is like a phrase    Recognize, represent, compare, and order rational numbers
operations and the properties for operations with
in that it has no equal sign.                      expressed in scientific notation, using both positive and
real numbers, i.e., associative, commutative, and
distributive properties.                               Understand that the order of operations            negative exponents.
describes the order to use to compute with        Compare and order fractions, decimals, percents, and
The order of operations defines the order in which
rational numbers.                                  numbers written in scientific notation.
operations are performed to simplify an
expression.                                            Understand that numbers can be represented
as decimals, fractions, percents, and in
The order of operations is as follows:
scientific notation.
Complete all operations within grouping
symbols. If there are grouping symbols             Understand and use strategies to simplify
within other grouping symbols, do the               expressions and to compare and order
innermost operation first.                          numbers.
Evaluate all exponential expressions.
Multiply and/or divide in order from left to
right.
Add and/or subtract in order from left to
right.

continued

4                                                                Revised Summer 2006
STANDARD 8.1 (continued)                                 STRAND: NUMBER AND NUMBER SENSE                GRADE LEVEL 8

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD                                ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS   ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
(Teacher Notes)

continued
A power of a number represents repeated
multiplication of the number. For example, (5)3
means (5)  (5)  (5). The base is the number
that is multiplied, and the exponent represents the
number of times the base is used as a factor. In
this example, (5) is the base, and 3 is the
exponent.
Scientific notation is used to represent very large
or very small numbers.
A number written in scientific notation is the
product of two factors: a decimal greater than or
equal to one but less than 10 multiplied by a
power of 10 (e.g., 3.1  105 = 310,000 and 3.1
105 = 0.000031).
Any real number raised to the zero power is 1.
The only exception to this rule is zero itself.
Scientific calculators, graphing calculators, and
some four-function calculators follow the rules of
order of operations.

5                                 Revised Summer 2006```

1. ### Grade 7 Math Released Test Questions – Stand...

CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T G R A D E Released Test Questions Math 7 Introduction - G...

2. ### The College Mathematics Journal

1970-2009 TOPIC INDEX for The College Mathematics Journal (including the Two Year College Mathematic...

3. ### TEACHER MATERIALS FOR FIFTH GRADE Houghton Mifflin...

TEACHER MATERIALS FOR FIFTH GRADE Houghton Mifflin Language Arts SENT B/O ITEM DESCRIPTION T.E.-- Th...

4. ### The Human Body Prior Knowledge – Mathematics...

unit 1 The Human Body Prior Knowledge The student has 1. constructed sets of objects lesser than or ...

• ### Norfolk Public Schools

File Size: 621.18 KB, Pages: 25, Views: 293,815 views

Norfolk Public Schools Preliminary Spring 2011 SOL Results School Board Meeting July 20, 2011 Draft 7-18-11 SEAS Table of Contents 1) Executive Summary District Highlights 2) District Results 3) English by School 4) Mathematics by School 5) History by School 6) Science by School Executive …
• ### Officer RECORD MANAGEMENT

File Size: 159.79 KB, Pages: 6, Views: 390,956 views

Officer RECORD MANAGEMENT The following information is gouge on how to keep your record up-to-speed. The blue links go to the NPC website. All these items are handled by different offices, so do not wait. Start getting your ship in order NOW! BUPERS ONLINE (BOL) …
• ### QuickBooks – Eastern Arizona College

File Size: 21.41 KB, Pages: 7, Views: 264,362 views

QuickBooks Course Design 2001-2002 Course Information Organization: Eastern Arizona College Division: Business Course Number: CMP 110R Title: QuickBooks Credits: 2 Developed by: Jeanne Bryce Lecture/Lab Ratio: 1/2 Transfer Status: None Extended Registration Class: No CIP Code: 52.0399 Assessment Mode: Pre/Post Test (45 Questions, 45 Points) …
• ### Mental Health Counseling – Gallaudet University

File Size: 563.72 KB, Pages: 118, Views: 3,660 views

School Counseling Program Practicum and Internship Manual School Counseling Program Department of Counseling Gallaudet University 800 Florida Ave., NE Washington, DC 20002 Revised June 2007/Copyright: Department of Counseling, Gallaudet University Table of Contents Overview of the Manual 4 Introduction to the Department of Counseling 5 …
• ### Elementary Education – Welcome to The School District of Palm

File Size: 157.79 KB, Pages: 10, Views: 4,511 views

District Adopted Materials List 2008 2009 Elementary Education Language Arts Title Publisher Online Edline L.V. Grammar, Gr. 2-5 Harcourt Language, 2002 Harcourt Or (School Choice) Write Source Language Program, 2002 Great Source Reading, Grades K - 5 MacMillan McGraw-Hill, Treasures Macmillan Intervention Reading, 3-5 Break …