Salem City Schools
Revised Summer 2006
Time Allotted Topic SOL Chapter(s)
First Six Weeks Organizing Data 8.1, 8.3, 8.12 Chapters 1, 2,
Measures of Central Tendency 3, 7 and 10
Stem and Leaf Diagrams
Box and Whisker Plots
Bar and Line Graphs
Second Six Order of Operations 8.1, 8.4, 8.15, Chapters 1, 3,
Weeks Coordinate System 8.17 4, 5, 6, 8, and
Exponential Notation 10
Variable and Algebraic Expressions
One and Two Step Equations
Third Six Weeks One and Two Step Equation/Inequalities 8.3, 8.14, Chapters 4, 5,
Functions 8.15, 8.16, 6, 7, and 8
Relations 8.17, 8.18
Ratio and Proportions
Fourth Six Decimals and Percents 8.1, 8.2, 8.5, Chapters 1, 3,
Weeks Number Sense 8.10 9, and 10
Rational and Real Numbers
Fifth Six Weeks Geometry 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, Chapters 12
Sixth Six Weeks More Functions 8.11, 8.13, Chapters 6 and
Probability 8.14, 8.18, (all 8
Matrices for SOL
2 Revised Summer 2006
These documents reflect alignment of the Mathematics curriculum in the Salem City Schools with
the Standards of Learning for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Efforts have been made to include
Use of manipulatives for classroom instruction.
Applying technology to accomplish the goals of a standard.
Integration of mathematics instruction with other curricular areas.
The format of these materials is similar to Mathematics Standards of Learning Curriculum
Framework published by the Virginia Department of Education in 2002. Unit/Topic/Strand refers to the six
basic learning strands adopted by Virginia in support of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
Standards adopted in 1989. The strands are synonymous with the Blueprint Categories used for reporting
purposes on Standard of Learning tests grades 3 and 5. These strands/categories are:
Number and Number Sense
Computation and Estimation
Probability and Statistics
Patterns, Functions and Algebra
Each objective has a recommended implementation schedule. Teacher notes and instructional
pedagogy that are implied in the objective are included along with Essential Understandings, and student
outcomes are listed under Essential Knowledge Skills. Notes for enrichment and extensions, particularly to
other curricular areas, are included under Essential Understandings. The cover page for each grade level is
a suggested teaching sequence for the standards. The standards are listed sequentially within the curriculum
document. The instructor is reminded that the standards are implemented with close attention given to
review or spiraling to former lessons. Math extensions are given by number (no SOL prefix).
The implementation of mathematics standards does not rest entirely on the mathematics content
addressed at a grade level. Concepts become part of a student's knowledge when developed with the aid of
real life applications taken from other curricular areas. The use of technology and hence the implementation
of Computer/Technology Standards (C/T) enables access to and manipulation of data from all resources.
Sample assessments are placed under Student Check for Understanding. Efforts have been made to
use multiple choice formats to support student practice for Standards of Learning tests. There are
suggestions for alternative assessments. Resources include reference to the student text and other classroom
resources that a teacher may have at their disposal.
The intent of these materials is to provide a teacher guide for a basic mathematics course for each
grade in levels K-8. Suggestions for extending the mathematics or enriching the mathematics content are
directed to the teacher who has students that are prepared to do more advanced work. Extensions and
Connections were developed with the cooperation of the gifted program coordinator. Some of these
additions may provide an alternative challenge for students who have demonstrated mastery of the material.
Pretesting is recommended for assessing competence in a standard. Each standard must be addressed either
as a new topic or pretested to assure concept mastery required by the Standards of Learning.
3 Revised Summer 2006
STANDARD 8.1 STRAND: NUMBER AND NUMBER SENSE GRADE LEVEL 8
8.1 The student will
a) simplify numerical expressions involving positive exponents, using rational numbers, order of operations, and properties of
operations with real numbers;
b) recognize, represent, compare, and order rational numbers expressed in scientific notation; and
c) compare and order decimals, fractions, percents, and numbers written in scientific notation.
Time Allotted: 2 weeks
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
Expression is a word used to designate any All students should The student will use problem solving, mathematical
symbolic mathematical phrase that may contain communication, mathematical reasoning, connections, and
Understand that any real number can be representations to
numbers and/or variables. Expressions do not
shown on a number line.
contain an equal sign.
Simplify numerical expressions containing exponents
Understand that integers, positive and
A numerical expression contains only numbers where the base is a rational number and the exponent is a
negative fractions, and positive and negative positive whole number, using the order of operations and
and the operations on those numbers.
decimals are rational numbers. properties of operations with real numbers.
Expressions are simplified using the order of
Understand that an expression is like a phrase Recognize, represent, compare, and order rational numbers
operations and the properties for operations with
in that it has no equal sign. expressed in scientific notation, using both positive and
real numbers, i.e., associative, commutative, and
distributive properties. Understand that the order of operations negative exponents.
describes the order to use to compute with Compare and order fractions, decimals, percents, and
The order of operations defines the order in which
rational numbers. numbers written in scientific notation.
operations are performed to simplify an
expression. Understand that numbers can be represented
as decimals, fractions, percents, and in
The order of operations is as follows:
Complete all operations within grouping
symbols. If there are grouping symbols Understand and use strategies to simplify
within other grouping symbols, do the expressions and to compare and order
innermost operation first. numbers.
Evaluate all exponential expressions.
Multiply and/or divide in order from left to
Add and/or subtract in order from left to
4 Revised Summer 2006
STANDARD 8.1 (continued) STRAND: NUMBER AND NUMBER SENSE GRADE LEVEL 8
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
A power of a number represents repeated
multiplication of the number. For example, (5)3
means (5) (5) (5). The base is the number
that is multiplied, and the exponent represents the
number of times the base is used as a factor. In
this example, (5) is the base, and 3 is the
Scientific notation is used to represent very large
or very small numbers.
A number written in scientific notation is the
product of two factors: a decimal greater than or
equal to one but less than 10 multiplied by a
power of 10 (e.g., 3.1 105 = 310,000 and 3.1
105 = 0.000031).
Any real number raised to the zero power is 1.
The only exception to this rule is zero itself.
Scientific calculators, graphing calculators, and
some four-function calculators follow the rules of
order of operations.
5 Revised Summer 2006
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