An Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Synthetic

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263



                      Chapter 17
 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry,
               and Synthetic Polymers




 Review Skills                                 17.3 Digestion
17.1 Organic Compounds                                 Digestive Enzymes
        Formulas for Organic Compounds                 Digestion of Protein
        Alkanes                                           Internet: Chymotrypsin Protein
        Alkenes                                           Hydrolysis
        Alkynes                                17.4 Synthetic Polymers
        Arenes (Aromatics)                             Nylon, a Synthetic Polypeptide
        Alcohols                                       Polyesters
        Carboxylic Acids                               Addition Polymers
        Ethers                                            Internet: Addition (Chain-growth)
        Aldehydes                                         Polymers
        Ketones                                           Special Topic 17.4: Recycling
        Esters                                            Synthetic Polymers
        Amines                                  Chapter Glossary
        Amides                                        Internet: Glossary Quiz
        Organic Compounds with More             Chapter Objectives
          Than One Functional Group            Review Questions
          Special Topic 17.1: Rehabilitation   Key Ideas
          of Old Drugs and Development of      Chapter Problems
          New Ones
17.2 Important Substances in Food
        Carbohydrates
        Amino Acids and Protein
        Fat
       Special Topic 17.2: Olestra
       Special Topic 17.3: Harmless Dietary
       Supplements or Dangerous Drugs?
        Steroids
264                      Study Guide for An Introduction to Chemistry




Section Goals and Introductions

 Section 17.1 Organic Compounds
  Goals
    To describe carbon-based compounds, called organic compounds.
    To describe the different ways that organic molecules can be represented and show you
       how to convert from one way to the others.
    To show how you can recognize different types of organic compounds.
  There are millions of different organic (carbon-based) compounds. The task of studying them
  becomes much easier when you recognize that organic compounds can be categorized
  according to structural similarities that lead to similarities in the compounds' important
  properties. For example, instead of studying the alcohols methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol
  separately, you can study the characteristics of alcohols in general, because all alcohols have
  very similar characteristics. This section introduces you to some of the different types of
  organic compounds, shows you how your can recognize substances in each category, and
  shows you several ways of describing the structures of organic compounds.

 Section 17.2 Important Substances in Food
  Goal: To describe the different types of chemicals found in our food: carbohydrates, amino
  acids and proteins, fats and oils (triglycerides), and steroids.
  Your understanding of organic compounds can be applied to understanding biomolecules,
  which are organic compounds that are important in biological systems. Like the organic
  compounds described in Section 17.1, recognizing that biomolecules can be placed in
  categories facilitates learning about them. You will learn about the structures of biomolecules
  in the categories of carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, triglycerides, and steroids.
 Section 17.3 Digestion
  Goal: To describe the chemical changes that take place in digestion.
  This section gives you a glimpse at the subject of biochemistry by describing some of the
  chemical changes of digestion. This includes a brief description of how enzymes facilitate this
  process. See the section on our Web site that describes a proposed mechanism for an enzyme
  reaction.
       Internet: Chymotrypsin Protein Hydrolysis

  Section 17.4 Synthetic Polymers
   Goals
     To describe synthetic polymers, including nylon, polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene,
        poly(vinyl chloride), and polystyrene.
     To describe the recycling of synthetic polymers.
   Scientists have developed ways of making many synthetic polymers that are similar to natural
   biomolecules. This section shows you how some of these polymers are made and describes
   their many different uses.
   See the section on our Web site that provides more information on one type of polymer.
Internet: Addition (Chain-growth) Polymers
266                         Study Guide for An Introduction to Chemistry




Chapter Checklist

          Read the chapter quickly before the lecture that describes it.
          Attend class meetings, take notes, and participate in class discussions.
          Work the Chapter Exercises, perhaps using the Chapter Examples as guides.
          Study the Chapter Glossary and test yourself on our Web site:
          Internet: Glossary Quiz
          Study all of the Chapter Objectives. You might want to write a description of how you
      will meet each objective.
          To get a review of the most important topics in the chapter, fill in the blanks in the Key
          Ideas section.
          Work all of the selected problems at the end of the chapter, and check your answers with
          the solutions provided in this chapter of the study guide.
          Ask for help if you need it.


Web Resources

         Internet: Chymotrypsin Protein Hydrolysis
         Internet: Addition (Chain-growth) Polymers
         Internet: Glossary Quiz
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