AP Biology Guided Reading Chapter 41

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AP Biology
Guided Reading Chapter 41


1. Define the following types of feeding mechanisms:
   a. Suspension
   b. Substrate
   c. Fluid
   d. Bulk

2. Complete the diagram below concerning animal homeostasis and blood sugar
   regulation.




3. How do hormones regulate appetite in humans?



4. Contrast the terms undernourished, overnourished and malnourished?


5. What are essential amino acids and essential fatty acids?



6. Contrast vitamins and minerals.
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7. Define the following terms:
   a. Ingestion

     b. Digestion

     c. Enzymatic hydrolysis

     d. Absorption

     e. Elimination

8. Contrast intracellular and extracellular digestion.

9.   Label the diagram below of the human digestive system.




10. What are the accessory glands of the digestive system and why are they call
   "accessory"  are they part of the digestive tract?




11. What is peristalsis?
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12.   Use the diagram below to label and explain the process of swallowing.




13. What are the three cell types of the gastric glands and what does each of them
   secrete?


14. Why is it an advantage that pepsin is secreted in its inactive form?



15. Describe the first part of the small intestine  what activity is occurring here?


16. What is bile  is it's action mechanical or chemical digestion?
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17.    Complete the chart below  use it as a study guide for the process of enzymatic
      digestion and the respective enzymes.




18. Explain the roles of the hormones listed below on digestive activity  note whether
   each are a case of stimulation or inhibition. Why is this level of control an advantage
   to the organism?

      a. Enterogastrone

      b. Gastrin

      c. Secretin

      d. Cholecystokinin

19. How does the body control the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine?


20. What is the route for fat absorption? Include the term chylomicrons and the role of
   bile.
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21. What role does the liver play in homeostasis with regard to digestion?



22. What is the major role of the large intestine in the digestive process?



23. Does the appendix have a role in the human body?



24. How can you infer an organism's diet based on it's teeth?


25. What general trends are noted in the digestive tracts of herbivores and carnivores?



26. What is different about the ruminant's digestive system that adapts it to eating a diet
   of "cellulose"?


27. How does symbiotic interactions impact digestion?
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