Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle

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AP Biology Reading Guide                                                           Chapter 12: Cell Cycle
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

                                                     Name_______________________Period___________

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle

Overview:

1.      What are the three key roles of cell division? State each role, and give an example.

Key Role                                   Example




2.      What is meant by the cell cycle?



Concept 12.1 Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells

3.      What is the meaning of genome? Compare your genome to that of a prokaryotic cell.




4.      How many chromosomes are in a human somatic cell?



5.      Name two types of somatic cells in your body.



6.      What is a gamete?



7.      Name the two types of gametes.




Copyright  2010 Pearson Education, Inc.                                                             -1-
AP Biology Reading Guide                                                           Chapter 12: Cell Cycle
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

8.      How many chromosomes in a human gamete?



9.      Define chromatin.



10.     Think carefully, now. How many DNA molecules are in each of your somatic cells?




11.     You are going to have to learn the difference between a number of similar-sounding terms. The
        sketch that looks like an X represents a replicated chromosome that has two sister chromatids.
        The narrow "waist" represents the location of the centromere. Students often get all these terms
        confused, so take time now to label the indicated areas of the figure and then define each of the
        terms below.

        chromosome

        chromatid

        centromere

        chromatin



12.     Study Figure 12.4. Label the figure below, and summarize what occurs at the DNA level in
        each stage.




Copyright  2010 Pearson Education, Inc.                                                               -2-
AP Biology Reading Guide                                                       Chapter 12: Cell Cycle
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

13.     What is mitosis? How is it different from cytokinesis?




14.     What occurs in meiosis? How is the chromosome number of daughter cells different?




15.     Select either mitosis or meiosis to answer the following questions.

         ___________________ By what process are the damaged cells in a wound replaced?

        ___________________ By what process are eggs formed?

        ___________________ By what process does a zygote develop into a multicellular organism?

        ___________________ In which process are identical daughter cells produced?

        ___________________ Which process reduces chromosome number of daughter cells?



16.     Don't skip the Concept Check Questions! They are a good way to verify your understanding.
        Here is a variation of question 3. Answer it here: A hedgehog has 90 chromosomes in its
        somatic cells.

      a. How many chromosomes did the hedgehog inherit from each parent?



      b. How many chromosomes are in each of the hedgehog's gametes?



      c. How many chromosomes will be in each somatic cell of the hedgehog's offspring?




Copyright  2010 Pearson Education, Inc.                                                         -3-
AP Biology Reading Guide                                                         Chapter 12: Cell Cycle
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

Concept 12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle

17.     Label each of the parts of the cell cycle listed below, and give a brief explanation of what
        happens in each phase.

        G1

        S

        G2

        M




18.     What are the components of the mitotic spindle? What is the source of these components?




19.     In animal cells, the assembly of spindle microtubules starts at the centrosome. What is another
        name for the centrosome?



20.     Sketch and label a centrosome with two centrioles.




21.     Describe what happens to the centrosome during interphase and then prophase.




22.     What is a kinetochore? Read your text carefully, and then make a labeled sketch that shows a
        replicated chromosome with two kinetechores and some attached spindle fibers. Figure 12.7
        may help.




Copyright  2010 Pearson Education, Inc.                                                             -4-
AP Biology Reading Guide                                                          Chapter 12: Cell Cycle
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

23.     You will need to spend some serious time with Figure 12.6. Use it to help you label this figure.
        Label each phase by name; then label the smaller structures. Finally, make 2 or 3 summary
        statements that indicate important features to note about the phase.

                                   Phase                  Important Feature of Phase




Copyright  2010 Pearson Education, Inc.                                                              -5-
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