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Grade Level: 6th grade
Presented by: Sally Ferrelle, Oglethorpe Academy, Savannah, GA
Length of Unit: 5 lessons

       In the unit on heat and temperature, the students will learn how the atoms move and heat is
       produced. They will also observe 3 ways that heat energy can be transferred: by
       conduction, convection, and radiation. By participating in class activities, the students will
       discover how and why the direction of heat moves from a warmer area to a cooler area.
       Students will be introduced to formulas used to convert one temperature scale to another
       and how to use the specific heat of an object to find the change in energy of the object.

       A. Concept Objectives
          1. Investigates the characteristics, movements, and measurements of heat energy.
          2. Analyzes the nature of freezing, boiling, evaporating, and condensing.
          3. Studies the relationship of matter and energy.
       B. Specific content
          Content follows the Core Knowledge Sequence on heat and temperature, ways heat
          energy is transferred, and direction of heat transfer.
       C. Skills
          1. Demonstrate use of thermometers.
          2. Design and conduct a scientific investigation.
          3. Use mathematics in scientific inquiry.

       A. Teacher Resources
          1. Science Explorer-Motion, Forces, and Energy, Prentic e Hall, 2000, ISBN 0-13-
          2. Windows on Science-Physical Science, Vol. 1, Optical Data, 1994, ISBN 1-56460-
       B. Student Resources
          1. Core Knowledge Sequence  Grade 5  Chemistry: Matter and Change.
          3. Core Knowledge Sequence  Grade 4  Chemistry: Properties of matter.

       Laser disc player for Windows on Science program
       Fahrenheit/Celsius thermometers

       Lesson One: Temperature and thermal energy (1-2 days)
       A. Daily Objectives
          1. Lesson Content: Identify the three common temperature scales.
          2. Concept Objective: Contrast temperature and thermal energy.
          3. Skill Objective: Comparing and contrasting, observing by using different types of
       B. Materials:
          1. Fahrenheit/Celsius Thermometers
    2. 3 bowls of water  one cold, one warm, and one at room temperature.
    3. Chart paper

C. Key vocabulary:
   1. Temperature  a measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in
       an object.
   2. Fahrenheit scale  the temperature scale on which 32 and 212 are the temperatures
       at which water freezes and boils.
   3. Celsius scale  the temperature scale on which zero and 100 are the temperatures at
       which water freezes and boils.
   4. Kelvin scale  the temperature scale on which zero is the temperature at which no
       more energy can be removed from matter.
   5. Absolute zero  the temperature at which no more energy can be removed from
   6. Thermal energy  the total energy of the particles in an object.
   7. Degree  unit of measurement of temperature.
   8. Calorie  amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one
       degree Celsius.
D. Procedures:
   1. In groups, students will brainstorm words related to temperature and come up with
       a definition. Responses will be shared and written down on chart paper.
   2. Students will write down vocabulary words and define terms for study.
   3. Have 3 bowls of water for each group of students. Each student will place one hand
       in the bowl of cold water and the other hand in the bowl of warm water. After a
       minute, then the student will place both hands in the bowl of room temperature
       water. Students will discuss in groups what they felt and why.
   4. Make paper thermometers to use for calculations and converting from Celsius to
       Fahrenheit and from Fahrenheit to Celsius..
   5. Use formulas to complete examples in class.
       a. From Fahrenheit to Celsius  Temperature times 5/9  32.
       b. From Celsius to Fahrenheit  Temperature + 32 times 9/5.
   6. Complete worksheets using calculations (Appendix A).

E. Evaluation:
   Students will compare/contrast the 3 types of temperature scales using a Venn diagram
   (Appendix B).

F. Standardized Test/State Test Connections:
   Review critical thinking skills by comparing and contrasting, observing, and inferring.

Lesson Two: Thermal energy and states of matter (1-2 days)
A. Daily objectives
   1. Lesson Content: Identify what causes matter to change state.
   2. Concept Objective: Relate expansion of matter to addition of thermal energy.
   3. Skill Objective: Compare/contrast evaporation and boiling. Observing, inferring,
       and cooperative learning.

B. Materials:
   1. Thermometers
   2. Beakers
   3. Hot plate
    4. 250 ml. of ice for each group of students
    5. timers
    6. Windows on Science-Physical Science, Vol.1 on heat and temperature.

C. Key vocabulary:
   1. Change of state  the physical change from one state of matter to another.
   2. Melting point  the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid.
   3. Freezing point  the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a
   4. Boiling point  the temperature at which a liquid boils.
   5. Vaporization  the process by which matter changes from the liquid to the gas state.
   6. Evaporation  vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid.
   7. Condensation  the change from the gaseous to the liquid form of matter.
   8. Thermal expansion  the expansion of matter when it is heated.
   9. Thermostat  a device that regulates temperature.
   10. Thermogram  image of an object made by measuring the infrared light it gives off.

D. Procedures:
   1. Have a group of students demonstrate a state of matter and the movement of
      molecules in that state by going to the front of the room and acting it out.
   2. Students will copy and write down the terms and definitions.
   3. Each group of students will design and carry out an experiment with materials to
      show the change in temperature as a block of ice changes from a solid to a liquid
      and to a gas. They will record the temperature information on a line graph and
      show the change of state points.
   4. Share results of experiments to others.
   5. Observe illustrations on laser disc program and take notes on states of matter.

E. Evaluation:
   Students will write a page describing how they would measure temperature if there
   were no thermometers.

F. Standardized Test/State Test Connections:
   Graphing skills, comparing/contrasting, observing, and drawing conclusions.

Lesson Three: Nature of heat (1-2 days)
A. Daily Objectives:
   1. Lesson content: Describe how heat is related to thermal energy, identify the three
       forms of heat transfer.
   2. Concept Objective: Relate specific heat to thermal energy.
   3. Skill Objective: Inferring, communicating, interpreting data, classifying.

B. Materials:
   1. Butter
   2. Spoons of different materials, such as plastic, wood, silver, and other metals.
   3. Glass beaker
   4. Hot water
   5. Balloons
   6. Hot plate
   7. Cold water in large container
C. Key vocabulary:
   1. Heat  the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to
      another at a lower temperature.
   2. Conduction  heat is transferred from one particle on matter to another without the
      movement of matter itself.
   3. Radiation  the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
   4. Convection  the transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluid.
   5. Convection current  a current caused by the rising of heated fluid and sinking of
      cooled fluid.
   6. Conductor  a material that easily transfers heat between its particles.
   7. Insulator  a material that does not easily transfer heat between its particles.
   8. Specific heat  the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram
      of a substance by one kelvin.

D. Procedures:
   1. Groups of students will brainstorm the word heat and write down on chart paper all
      words that relate to heat. These will be shared with the whole group.
   2. Students will copy and define the terms for study.
   3. Groups of students will use the materials to complete the activity in class. Place
      several spoons of different materials in a beaker without them touching each other.
      Put a small pat of butter on each utensil at the same height. Pour some hot water
      into the beaker and observe what happens. Students will record what happened to
      the butter and if it happened to each spoon. Why did this happen?
   4. Place a balloon on the lip of a beaker after pouring 100 ml. of water in it. Heat up
      the water on a hot plate and have students observe what happens to the balloon. (It
      inflates.) Next place the beaker in a larger glass of cooled water and observe the
      reaction of the balloon. (It deflates.) Repeat the experiment again and have the
      students write down their observation and explain why the balloon changed shape.

E. Evaluation:
   Students will write a paragraph that explains the difference between heat and

F. Standardized Test/State Test connections:
      Students will demonstrate observing, inferring, and critical thinking skills.

Lesson 4: Calorimeter (1 day)
A. Daily Objectives:
   1. Lesson Content: When hot water and cold water are mixed thermal energy is
   2. Concept Objective: Conservation of thermal energy.
   3. Skill Objective: Calculate the amount of heat transferred from the hot water to the
       cold water in the calorimeter.

B. Materials:
   See Appendix C for a list of materials

C. Key vocabulary:
   1. Calorimeter  a device that measures changes in thermal energy

D. Procedures:
        1. See attached handout (Appendix C).
     Lesson 5: Uses of heat (1-2 days)
     A. Daily objectives:
        1. Lesson Content: Discover differences between types of combustion engines.
        1. Concept Objective: Relate thermal energy to heat engines and refrigerators.
        2. Skills Objective: Develop hypotheses, classify, and organize information.

     B. Materials:
        1. Bicycle pump
        2. Deflated ball
        3. Windows on Science-Physical Science, Vol.1 on heat and temperature.

     C. Key vocabulary:
        1. Heat engine  a device that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy.
        2. Combustion  the process of burning a fuel to produce thermal energy.
        3. Internal combustion engine  an engine that burns fuel inside cylinders within the
        4. External combustion engine  an engine powered by fuel burned outside the engine.

     D. Procedures:
        1. Have students fill the bicycle pump and deflated ball and observe if it feels cold or
            warm. Inflate the ball by using the pump. Students will feel the pump and ball
            again to see if there are any changes in temperature. They will write down an
            explanation for any changes that took place.
        2. Students will copy and define the vocabulary words for study.
        3. Observe laser disc to see examples of types of engines. Students will take notes of
            any differences.

     E. Evaluation:
        Students will compare and contrast the two types of heat engines by writing down how
        they are alike and different.

     F. Standardized Test/State Test Connections:
        Comparing/contrasting, observing, inferring, and interpreting diagrams and

     1. Materials per group: 2 shoeboxes, thermometer, hot water, plastic cup, plastic wrap,
     newspaper, styrofoam pieces, foam board, scissors, timer, cooler with ice inside.
     Students will use the material to create a house that will keep the hot water warm inside the
     house. Both shoeboxes will have doors and windows cut into them and plastic wrap placed
     over the openings. One of the shoeboxes will have no insulation and the other will have
     any type of insulation materials secured inside it with tape. Place a thermometer and a cup
     of hot water inside each shoebox. The shoeboxes should be placed inside the cooler with
     ice and the timer started. Time each shoebox for 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes.
     Students will record the temperatures at the end of each segment and compare the two
     shoeboxes to see if insulation kept the hot water warm.
          2. Performance-based test on the concepts covered in this unit.
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