Chapter 16Evolution of Populations

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Name______________________________                                                 Class __________________                                 Date ______________


 Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations                                                                            Chapter Vocabulary Review

Completion On the lines provided, complete the following sentences.
 1. The combined genetic information of all members of a particular population
    is called a(an) ________________________.
 2. The ________________________ of an allele is the number of times that the allele
    occurs in a gene pool, compared with the number of times other alleles occur.
 3. A(An) ________________________ is a trait controlled by a single gene.
 4. ________________________ are controlled by two or more genes.
 5. The ________________________ of an allele in a population is often represented by
    a percentage.

Multiple Choice On the line provided, write the letter of the answer that best
completes the sentence or answers the question.
____________ 6. For most genes, a gene pool typically contains
                    a. no alleles.                              c. one allele.
                    b. two or more alleles.                     d. no more than two alleles.
____________ 7. The graphs below show changes in the distribution of beak size in Galpagos
                    finches during a period when food was scarce. What type of natural selection
                    do the graphs show?
                    a. directional selection                    c. stabilizing selection
                    b. destabilizing selection                  d. disruptive selection
                     Number of Birds




                                                                                                                    Number of Birds
                      in Population




                                                                                                                     in Population



                                                                                 Peak shifts; average
                                                                                 beak size increases.


                                             Beak Size                                                                                Beak Size

____________    8. The graph below shows the distribution of human birth weights. What type
                   of selection keeps this curve narrow and in the same place?
                   a. directional selection                c. stabilizing selection
                   b. destabilizing selection              d. disruptive selection
                               Percentage of Population




                                                                                        Selection
                                                                                        against                                       Key
                                                                                        both extremes                       Low mortality,
                                                                                        keeps curve                         high fitness
                                                                                        narrow and in                       High mortality,
                                                                                        same place.                         low fitness


                                                   Birth Weight




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Name______________________________                   Class __________________                 Date ______________

____________    9. What type of natural selection takes place when
                   individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve
                   have higher fitness than individuals near the middle?
                   a. directional selection                  c. stabilizing selection
                   b. destabilizing selection               d. disruptive selection
____________   10. A random change in allele frequency is called
                   a. fitness.                               c. speciation.
                   b. genetic drift.                        d. the founder effect.
____________   11. Genetic drift is more likely to occur in
                   a. large populations.                     c. small populations.
                   b. medium-sized populations.             d. a single individual.
____________   12. What occurs when allele frequencies change as a result of the
                   migration of a small subgroup of a population?
                   a. directional selection                  c. speciation
                   b. the founder effect                    d. genetic equilibrium
____________   13. What principle states that the frequency of an allele in a population
                   will remain constant unless one or more factors cause that
                   frequency to change?
                   a. the speciation principle               c. the Hardy-Weinberg principle
                   b. the genetic equilibrium principle     d. the genetic-drift principle
____________   14. The situation in which allele frequencies do not change is called
                   a. genetic equilibrium.                   c. behavioral equilibrium.
                   b. stabilizing equilibrium.              d. directional selection.
____________   15. Which of the following is required to maintain genetic equilibrium?
                   a. The population must be small.
                   b. No mutations occur.
                   c. Individuals move between populations.
                   d. Natural selection occurs.
____________   16. What is the formation of a new species called?
                   a. directional selection                  c. founder effect
                   b. speciation                            d. temporal isolation
____________   17. What situation occurs when members of two different species cannot
                   interbreed and produce fertile offspring?
                   a. reproductive isolation                 c. genetic drift
                   b. genetic equilibrium                   d. natural selection
____________   18. What kind of isolation occurs when two populations are capable of
                   interbreeding but have differences in courtship rituals or other types of
                   behavior?
                   a. courtship isolation                    c. geographic isolation
                   b. behavioral isolation                  d. temporal isolation
____________   19. Two populations kept separate by a river are characterized by
                   a. genetic drift.                         c. geographic isolation.
                   b. disruptive selection.                 d. temporal isolation.
____________   20. What situation occurs when two or more species
                   reproduce at different times?
                   a. stabilizing selection                  c. geographic isolation
                   b. behavioral isolation                  d. temporal isolation


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                                                         68
Name______________________________                     Class __________________                    Date ______________


 Chapter 16   Evolution of Populations

Section 161 Genes and Variation                                                                (pages 393396)
    Key Concepts
   What are the main sources of heritable variation in a population?
   How is evolution defined in genetic terms?
   What determines the numbers of phenotypes for a given trait?

Introduction         (page 393)
1. Is the following sentence true or false? Mendel's work on inheritance was published
   after Darwin's lifetime.
2. Which two important factors was Darwin unable to explain without an understanding
   of heredity?




How Common Is Genetic Variation?                                      (page 393)
3. All organisms have additional                                                                 that is "invisible"
   because it involves small differences in biochemical processes.

Variation and Gene Pools                      (page 394)
4. A group of individuals of the same species that interbreed is a(an)                                                 .
5. All of the genes in a population are called a(an)                                                              .
6. Is the following sentence true or false? A gene pool typically contains just one allele for
   each inheritable trait.
7. The number of times that an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of
   times other alleles for the same gene occur is called the
   of the allele.

Sources of Genetic Variation                         (pages 394395)
 8. What is a mutation?


 9. Why do mutations occur?




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Name______________________________                                  Class __________________                                Date ______________

10. Circle the letter of each choice that is true about mutations.
    a. They do not always change an amino acid.
    b. They always affect lengthy segments of a chromosome.
    c. They always affect an organism's phenotype.
    d. They always affect an organism's fitness.
11. Is the following sentence true or false? Most heritable differences are due to gene
    shuffling that occurs during the production of gametes.
12. Circle the letter of each choice that is true about sexual reproduction.
    a. It is a major source of variation in many populations.
    b. It can produce many different phenotypes.
    c. It can produce many different genetic combinations.
    d. It can change the relative frequency of alleles in a population.

Single-Gene and Polygenic Traits                                             (pages 395396)
13. Is the following sentence true or false? The number of phenotypes produced for a
    given trait depends on how many genes control the trait.
14. Is the following sentence true or false? Most traits are controlled by a single gene.


15. Label the two graphs to show which one represents a single-gene trait and which one
    represents a polygenic trait.
                                                                                    Frequency of Phenotype
      Frequency of Phenotype




                                                                                                             100

                                                                                                             80

                                                                                                             60
                                                                                             (%)




                                                                                                             40

                                                                                                             20

                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                                   Widow's peak   No widow's peak
                               Phenotype (height)                                                                         Phenotype




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                                                                        57
Name______________________________                       Class __________________                 Date ______________


Section 162 Evolution as Genetic Change
(pages 397402)
    Key Concepts
   How does natural selection affect single-gene and polygenic traits?
   What is genetic drift?
   What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle?

Natural Selection on Single-Gene Traits                                         (pages 397398)
1. Is the following sentence true or false? Natural selection on single-gene traits cannot
   lead to changes in allele frequencies.
2. If a trait made an organism less likely to survive and reproduce, what would happen to
   the allele for that trait?



3. If a trait had no effect on an organism's fitness, what would happen to the allele for that
   trait?




Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits                                      (pages 398399)
4. List the three ways that natural selection can affect the distributions of phenotypes.
   a.
   b.
   c.

Match the type of selection with the situation in which it occurs.
            Type of Selection               Situation
            5. Directional                  a. Individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve
            6. Stabilizing                     have higher fitness than individuals near the middle.
                                            b. Individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness
            7. Disruptive
                                               than individuals in the middle or at the other end.
                                            c. Individuals near the center of the curve have higher
                                               fitness than individuals at either end.


8. An increase in the average size of beaks in Galpagos finches is an example of
                                            selection.
9. Is the following sentence true or false? The weight of human infants at birth is under the
   influence of disruptive selection.


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                                                             58
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